Dessert wine – Wikipedia
The term “sweet wine” links to this page. Sweet Wine (musical composition by Mark Williams) is a song written by Mark Williams (song). Fresh Cream is a song by the band Cream. For other uses, see Fresh Cream. The dessert wine, also known as pudding wine in the United Kingdom, is a sweet wine that is generally served with a sweet dessert. A dessert wine cannot be defined in a straightforward manner. When it comes to dessert wines in the United Kingdom, any sweet wine consumed with a meal is regarded a dessert wine, as opposed to the white fortified wines (fino and amontilladosherry) used before the meal and the red fortified wines (port and Madeira) consumed after the meal.
In contrast, in the United States, a dessert wine is classified as any wine that contains more than 14 percent alcohol by volume, which includes all fortified wines—and as a result, it is taxed at a higher rate as a result.
Methods of production
Château d’Yquem 1999, a noble rot wine from the Loire Valley Dessert wine producers are interested in producing a wine that contains high quantities of both sugar and alcohol. Because all winemaking results in the production of alcohol through the fermentation of carbohydrates, they are often traded off. However, there are a variety of methods for increasing the relative sugar levels in the finished wine:
- Grow grapes such that they naturally contain enough sugar for both sweetness and alcohol
- Add sugar in one of the following ways:
- Sugar or honey (Chaptalization) is added before fermentation
- Unfermented must (Süssreserve) is added after fermentation.
- Prior to the completion of the sugar fermentation process (fortification or’mutage ‘), remove water from the sugar solution to concentrate the sugar solution:
- Prior to the completion of the sugar fermentation process (fortification or’mutage’), remove water from the sugar solution to concentrate it:
A late harvest Semillon from the state of Washington. In the lack of alternative methods, producers of dessert wines are forced to create their own sugar in the vineyard. Some grape varietals, such as Muscat, Ortega, and Huxelrebe, yield significantly more sugar than others due to their genetic makeup. Final sugar levels are greatly influenced by environmental factors; thevigneroncan assist by leaving the grapes on the vine until they are fully ripe, as well as by green picking and trimming to expose the young grapes to the light.
While the vigneron has little control over the sun, a sunny year helps to keep sugar levels under control.
However, most of the Muscats from antiquity, including the famousConstantiaof South Africa, were very certainly created in this manner.
Honey was used to sweeten wine in ancient Rome, and it was also used to boost the ultimate strength of the finished product. Today, sugar is typically added to wines that are flabby and immature in order to increase the alcohol content rather than for sweetness, although a certain amount of chaptalization is authorized in the wines of certain nations. German wines must state whether they are ‘natural’ or not; chaptalization is prohibited from the highest levels of German wines in any event.
It is a German winemaking method in which unfermented must (grape juice) is added to the wine after it has finished fermenting. This boosts the sweetness of the finished wine while also diluting the alcohol a little—in Germany, the final wine must have more than 15 percent Süssreserve by volume, which is the maximum allowed. Süssreserve allows winemakers to complete the fermentation process without having to be concerned about halting the fermentation process before all of the sugar has been used.
Süssreserve is also employed by other producers of German-style wines, most notably in New Zealand’s wine industry.
To accompany dessert, sweet Montilla-Morilessherry, notably Pedro Ximénez and vins doux naturels are the most often consumed fortified wines in the world. Because it is made from raisin wine, the Pedro Ximenezdessert wine is unlike any other sweet wine from Andalucia. It is fortified and matured in a solera system, like other sweet wines from the region. Alternatively, some sweet sherries (which are mix wines) like asBristol Cream can be consumed as dessert wine. Arnaud de Villeneuve, a professor at the University of Montpellier in France, is credited for perfecting the manufacture of natural sweet wines in the 13th century.
Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise, Muscat de Rivesaltes, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de Lunel, and Muscat de Mirevaland are all named after vineyards in France: Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise, Muscat de Rivesaltes, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de Lunel, and Muscat de Mirevaland.
Regardless of the grape, fermentation can be halted using up to 10% of 95 percent grape spirit, depending on the amount used.
A glass of Piedmontese raisin wine, Calusopassito, was enjoyed. Sweet wine known as passum was produced at ancient Carthage from air-dried grapes, and comparable wines, known as Moscato Passito di Pantelleria and produced across the Malta Channel from the site of Carthage, are being produced today. The Romans were the first to describe such wines. ‘Passito’ wines are produced in Northern Italy, where the grapes are dried on straw, racks, or rafters before being pressed and fermented in barrels.
In the Jura, Rhone, and Alsace, the French make’straw wine’ (vin de paille); the Spaniards start with a raisin wine and Pedro Ximénez before fortifying it; the Cypriots have their ancientCommandaria; and there have been recent trials with the style in South Africa and the United States.
Most wine rules demand that the grapes for ice wine be gathered when the temperature is less than 7 degrees Celsius (19 degrees Fahrenheit). During such temperatures, some water in the grapes freezes, but the sugars and other solids in the grape juice remain dissolved in the remainder of the liquid. If the grapes are pressed while still frozen, a very concentrated must can be produced, which requires a particular yeast strain and an extended fermentation period. The resultant wines are quite sweet, yet their acidity helps to keep them balanced.
The most well-known ice wines are German Eiswein and Canadian Icewine, although ice wines are also produced in smaller numbers in the United States, Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Italy, Australia, France, and New Zealand.
Noble rot wine
Wines such as TokajiAsz of Tokaj-Hegyaljain Hungary, Château d’Yquemof Sauternes, and Seewinkelof Austria are prepared from grapes that have been mouldy with Botrytis cinerea, which sucks the water out of the fruit while giving flavors of honey and apricot to the future wine. Noble rot is caused by a fungus that requires precise environmental conditions to thrive; if the environment is excessively moist, the same fungus may create destructivegrey rot. Vignerons make every effort to increase the quantity of noble rot produced while avoiding the loss of the entire crop to grey rot.
Because of the time it takes for noble rot to develop, these wines are typically picked late.
The fact that noble rot was a factor in Hungarian vineyard demarcation some 50 years before a messenger was allegedly mugged on his way to Schloss Johannisberg in Germany and that asz inventory predates it by approximately 200 years indicates that Hungary’s Tokaj was the first region to produce the wine.
Noble rot is also responsible for a variety of other dessert wines, including the German beerenauslese and trockenbeerenauslese (TBA) classifications, the French Monbazillac, the Austrian Beerenauslese, the Austrian Ausbruch, and other TBA-type wines from throughout the globe.
Vin Santo with almond cookies are a delicious combination. Generally speaking, the wine should be sweeter than the food it is served with; a perfectly ripe peach has been regarded as the ideal companion for many dessert wines, yet it makes sense not to drink wine at all with many chocolate- and toffee-based meals, for example, Vin doux naturel Muscats and red dessert wines such as Recioto della Valpolicella and fortified wines such as the vin doux naturel Muscat are the ideal complements for these difficult-to-pair treats.
Alternatively, the wine alone can serve as a dessert, although bakery sweets can also be a suitable complement, particularly when they include a hint of bitterness, such as biscuits dipped in Vin Santo (Santo wine).
White dessert wines are often served slightly chilled, however they can be served excessively cold if they are served too quickly. Red dessert wines should be served at room temperature or slightly cooled to enhance their flavor.
- “The seven most important sorts of white wines.” Süssreserve was retrieved on April 27, 2019. Archived 2007-03-10 at the Wayback Machineon the Wine Dictionary website
- Amerine and Maynard’s “Wine.” Encyclopedia Britannica is a reputable reference work. Encyclopedia Britannica is a reputable reference work. Shoemaker, Ted (27 April 2019)
- Shoemaker, Ted (6 December 2013). “German Ice Wine Regulations Have Been Tightened.” This is according to Wine Spectator. retrieved on March 20, 2021
- CooksInfo is a website dedicated to providing information about cooking (4 October 2020). “Ice Wine,” as the name suggests. Cook’s Information, retrieved on March 20, 2021
- “The Beautiful Bounty of Botrytized Wines,” retrieved on March 20, 2021. Wine Enthusiast Magazine is a publication dedicated to wine enthusiasts. Steve Kolpan, Michael A. Weiss, and Brian H. Smith have published a paper in Science (2014). Winewise: Your Complete Guide to Understanding, Selecting, and Enjoying Wine is a comprehensive guide to understanding, selecting, and enjoying wine (2nd ed.). Jancis Robinson, MW, “Tokaji,” in Jancis Robinson, MW (ed. ), Jancis Robinson’s Concise Wine Companion (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2001), pp. 469–471, ISBN0-19-866274-2
- Gorman-McAdams, Mary. “Delicious Dessert Wines for Dessert Week.” Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN978-0-54433462-5 The Kitchn, retrieved on April 27, 2019
- “Three of the Best Italian Dessert Wines,” retrieved on April 27, 2019. Italy, November 12th, 2014
- Jeanne O’Brien Coffey is the author (20 November 2017). Sauternes is the perfect holiday wine for everything from appetizers to desserts, as revealed by Wine Spectator. Forbes
- Dessert wine is defined in the Wiktionary dictionary as follows:
The Secret to Creating Dessert Wines
- Photos and information about nine different types of fruity red wine
- Introduction to Wine, as well as Serving Suggestions
- Gallery of Wine Instruction for Beginners
Late Harvest Wines
Late harvest dessert wine is the most popular type of dessert wine. This simply means that the winery will allow the fruit on the vine to overripen (a process known as raisining), causing the sugar level (known as brix) to rise significantly while the juice content decreases significantly. Sometimes, while the grapes are still on the vine, a rot known as Botrytis (also known as the noble rot) can develop, giving the grapes a distinct flavor and character. What’s left are grapes that have been condensed and sweetened.
As a result, high-sugar, low-alcohol wines are produced that have a delectably sweet flavor.
These half-bottles of wine can cost the same as or more than a standard 750 mL bottle of table wine, due to the fact that there is less juice to ferment.
Port is another dessert wine that people tend to mistake with late harvest, and it is also made in small quantities. Port wine is quite popular and has been around for a very long period of time. Port is a fortified wine, which means it has been infused with a spirit of some type (typically brandy). In spite of the high brix, this results in an alcohol level of around 18 percent. Any type of grape may be used to make port. Historically, real Port wines have been produced in Spain and Portugal from grape varietals indigenous to those countries.
These individuals can live for a very long period and cost a lot of money.
Because it has been reinforced, it will survive far longer after being opened.
Types of Port
Tawny and Ruby Port are the two most common varieties of port. In order to make Tawny Port, the wine is fermented in a barrel and allowed to evaporate before being oxidized in the bottle. This procedure imparts a golden/brown color to the wine as well as a “nutty” flavor to the finished product. Ruby Port is the cheapest and most widely manufactured form of port available on the market. In order to prevent excessive oxidation, the wine is matured for three years in enormous oak vats, which helps to preserve the deep red color and lively, fruity tastes.
Ice wines are a refreshing pleasure, but they are also expensive. Ice wines are prepared from grapes that have been plucked while still on the vine, usually during the first frosts of fall. The grapes are kept on the vine to ripen and raisin, similar to how late harvest wines are made. After that, the winemaker must wait for a frost to arrive and cover the grapes before harvesting the crop. Germany and Canada are the two countries that manufacture the most Ice Wines. The grapes are then transported back to the winery and crushed as soon as possible.
Because it requires a large number of grapes to produce juice, this wine is quite pricey.
These wines are typically highly sweet and have a syrupy consistency when they are poured. They are referred to as “liquid gold” due to the hue and high cost of these precious metals. Vidal and Riesling are the most commonly utilized grapes in the production of this wine.
Madeira, produced in the Portuguese island of Madeira, off the coast of Portugal, has the ability to age as long as fine Port. The wine is subjected to high temperatures for several months in specially constructed structures known as estufas by the winemakers. When the barrels are aged in this manner, the effect is intended to be similar to that of a long sea trip through tropical climes. Madeira was initially unfortified, but the addition of spirits improved the island’s capacity to withstand lengthy sea trips.
Wines that have been matured for 50 to 100 years often taste the finest, and they age well.
Alone or With Dessert?
One common misperception regarding dessert wines is that they must be paired with a sweet dish. While there are some incredible dessert combinations to go with these wines, the wine itself is a terrific dessert in its own right. Wines have subtle nuances and delicate tastes, and eating a sugary, rich dessert may obscure these characteristics. Rather of complicating things, simple pairings work best, such as a cheesecake with a late harvest Sauvignon Blanc, a superb Port with a warm chocolate torte, or Ice Wine with handmade vanilla bean ice cream.
Dessert wines are a good choice. Many individuals are dismissive of anything sweet and will not even taste them, let alone consume them after supper. When you’re out wine tasting in wine country, inquire as to if they make a sweet wine and give it a try. When you go out to eat at a fancy restaurant, don’t be scared to choose a sweet wine to accompany your meal afterward. Inquire with your server about suggestions. Although the majority of dessert wines are included in this list, there are a variety of other options to explore.
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How Do Dessert Wines Get So Sweet?
Have you ever been curious about how dessert wines get sweet? One may easily envisage a group of winemakers just opening up large vats and pouring in powdered sugar to get this result. The fact that bran flakes are acceptable during the prepubescent years is testament to this.) In addition, while certain liquors have been shown to contain signs of sugar being added, dessert wines are made sweet by a number of procedures. They also get more costly as a result of a number of processes. Due to the basic notion of dehydration—which means that you receive less juice per grape and it takes a lot more to fill a bottle—most dessert wines are sold in half-liter or 375-milliliter bottles.
And don’t allow the “sweetness” element frighten you away from trying it.
Dessert wines are often made from grapes that are highly fragrant and strong in acidity in order to achieve a balance with the sweetness, as well as concentrated complexity. And then there’s Noble Rot, which just adds a pleasantly weird tang to everything it touches.
As far as sweet wines go, this is a rather straightforward one to learn how to make. Takeport. Port is fermented in the same way that other wines are, by enabling yeasts to feed on sugar and convert it to alcohol. However, in cases when grapes like as Cabernet Sauvignon do this to the point of producing a much drier wine, the fermentation of port is actually stopped—as in, brought to a screaming halt—by the addition of a neutral spirit to the mix. This is referred to as fortification. (As a result, fortified wines are produced.) It has two key impacts on wine: it increases the alcohol concentration of the wine (which is why port is served in those cute little cups) and it prevents fermentation, which means there will be residual sugar.
Don’t let a drop pass you by!
If you’ve never had the pleasure of sipping a wine that has been infected by Noble Rot (a fancy name for Botrytis cinerea), chances are you’ve heard of the disease. It’s essentially simply a mold that raisinates the grapes, drying them up and concentrating their sugars as a result of the process. In addition to increasing sweetness, Noble Rot also increases flavor concentration. As a result, wines such as Sauternes, Tokaji Azu (from Hungary), and Spätlese Riesling, which are intensely fragrant and powerful due to dehydration, are produced in small quantities by Noble Rot.
By this time, you’ve probably seen the pattern: it all boils down to lowering the quantity of water in the grapes that are picked. And the ice wineprocess is a pretty interesting method of accomplishing this. Yes, there is also a freezing one. The concept is to leave the grapes (which are generally strong in aromatic compounds and moderately acidic) on the vine throughout the winter. By plucking them at at the right time—and this is a critically essential choice on the side of the vintners—enough of the water is still frozen, resulting in concentrated sweetness and aromatics when they are pressed.
Similar to the ice wine technique, but less severe, this is merely the procedure of delaying harvest (again, of a specific and frequently strongly flavored fruit) in order to enable the grape to shrivel and concentrate sugars and aromatics. As a result, every ice wine is officially (and extremely) “late harvest,” albeit not all late harvest wine is ice wine, and vice versa. Riesling (again, Spätlese, which literally translates as “late harvest”), as well as Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc, are popular late harvest varietals.
5 Types of Dessert Wine
Switch up the hefty dessert with something that will make your tastebuds glitter instead. Learn about the five primary varieties of dessert wines, ranging from the delightfully effervescent Moscato d’Asti to the dark and gloomy vintage Port of the world.
Dessert wines are supposed to be sipped from tiny glasses and cherished in the same way that a fine Scotch is. Sparkling, light sweet, rich sweet, sweet red and fortified are the five varieties of dessert wines that may be found on the market.
Types of Dessert Wines
- Sweet Red Wine
- Fortified Wine
- Sparkling Dessert Wine
- Lightly Sweet Dessert Wine
- Richly Sweet Dessert Wine
A Guide to Dessert Wines
Sweet wine is made from grapes that are exceptionally sweet! In order to produce sweet wine, the fermentation process must be stopped before the yeast has converted all of the grape sugars to alcohol. To stop fermentations, numerous techniques are available, including super-cooling the wine or adding brandy to the mixture. The end product is a full-bodied wine that has been naturally sweetened with grape sugars. Despite the fact that there are hundreds of different varieties of dessert wines available on the market, the majority of them fall into five broad categories.
Take a look at all five kinds for a comprehensive look at dessert wines.
Sparkling Dessert Wine
Because of the carbonation and strong acidity in sparkling wine, it appears to be less sweet than it actually is! Certain grape types have a more pleasant aroma than others. This deceives our brain into believing that they taste sweeter as well! Consider the difference in sweetness between a Demi-Sec Moscato (or “Semi Secco”) and a Demi-Sec Champagne, despite the fact that they may contain the same quantity of sugar. Pay attention to the following terms on the label of sweet dessert wines, sparkling wines, and other sparkling beverages: Purchase the book and receive the course!
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- Demi-Sec* (which translates as “off-dry” in French)
- Amabile (which translates as “slightly sweet” in Italian)
- Semi Secco* (which translates as “off-dry” in Italian)
- French for “sweet,” Dolce / Dulce (Italian for “sweet,” Spanish for “sweet,” and Moelleux (French for “sweet,” for some French wines)
- Doux (French for “sweet,” Dolce / Dulce (Italian for “sweet,” Spanish for “sweet”)
*Not to be confused with the terms “sec” or “secco,” which are used to describe dryness in both French and Italian.
Lightly-Sweet Dessert Wine
Lightly sweet wines have a delightful sweetness to them, making them ideal for a hot afternoon. Many of these sweet wines go well with spicy dishes such as Indian or Southeast Asian cuisine, which is why they are so popular. Lightly sweet wines are best consumed as soon as possible after the vintage date, with the exception of a few exceptional examples, such as German Riesling, which may be savored for several years after the vintage date. Expect these wines to be bursting with fruit tastes and well-suited for desserts that are fruit-based or vanilla-driven.
Fruit tarts and a Gewürztraminer go together like peanut butter and jelly.
- Gewürztraminer Alsace, Alto-Adige (Italy), California, and New Zealand are all places where you may get this extremely flowery wine with modest alcohol content: Riesling Available in both dry styles (which are popular in Australia, Alsace, and the United States) and sweeter styles (which are more usually found in Germany). A wine with a high level of natural acidity, which helps to cut through the sweetness of the flavor
- Müller-Thurgau A less common type, also from Germany, that may be found in some regions of Oregon and has flowery scents and a little softer acidity than the other varieties. Porch wine is a classic and is especially good with sausages. Chenin Blanc is a white wine produced in France. When it comes to Chenin Blanc, a sweeter flavor is more frequent in the United States, although it is also produced in significant quantities in South Africa and France’s Loire Valley region. When purchasing Chenin Blanc, pay close attention to the label because many South African and French producers produce dry versions that taste more like a dry Sauvignon Blanc
- When purchasing Viognier, pay close attention to the label because many South African and French producers create dry versions that taste more like a dry Sauvignon Blanc
- The majority of the time, viognier is not sweet. However, because it is an aromatic grape type, you might occasionally encounter it in a fruit-driven style that smells like peaches and perfume. It has a thick, oily texture on the palate. This kind of Viognier may be found exclusively in Condrieu AOP (Rhône Valley) in France
- It is also known as “Condrieu Blanc.”
Richly Sweet Dessert Wine
With the best quality fruits and in an unfortified manner, these richly sweet wines are produced. Sugar and acidity allow many of these wines to retain their fresh flavor even after 50 years or more in the bottle. For example, the HungarianTokaji (pronounced “toe-kye”) was a favorite of the Tzars of Russia, while South African Constantia was a favorite of both the Dutch and the English.
The FrenchSauternes was a favorite of Americans in the early 1800’s and is still popular today. There are numerous methods for producing highly sweet dessert wines, and you may gain a better understanding of them by looking at how they are prepared.
Late harvest refers to precisely what it says on the tin. With each additional day that grapes are allowed to hang on the vine, they get progressively sweeter and more raisinated, culminating in grapes with concentrated sweetness. “Vendage Tardive” is the term used in Alsace to describe late harvest, whereas “Spätlese” is used in Germany to describe late harvest. Late harvest wines can be made from any grape that has been left on the vine. Having said that, late-harvest wines made from Chenin Blanc, Sémillon, and Riesling grapes are becoming increasingly popular.
Noble rot is caused by a kind of spore known as Botrytis cinerea, which feeds on fruits and vegetables. Noble rot, despite the fact that it sounds (and seems) awful, imparts distinct notes of ginger, saffron, and honey to sweet wines. There are several different varieties of dessert wines derived from noble rot grapes that are widely available.
- Sauternais Sémillon and Sauvignon Blanc are blended together in Sauternes, Barsac, Cadillac, and Monbazillac to produce a rich, golden-hued sweet wine. A collection of French Appellations in and around Bordeaux, including Sauternes, Barsac, Cadillac, and Monbazillac
- Tokaji Tokaji Asz is a Hungarian wine created from Furmint grapes
- Auslese, BA, and TBA Riesling (BA = Beerenauslese, TBA = Trockenbeerenauslese)
- And Auslese, BA, and TBA Riesling (BA = Beerenauslese, TBA = Trockenbeerenauslese). Auslese is the first level of the German Pradikat system (a sweetness labeling system), and it has a larger proportion of botrytis-affected grapes than any other level. In addition to being sweeter than German Rieslings from the “QbA” and “Kabinett” varieties, they often have a greater alcohol content.
The grapes are put out on straw mats to raisinate prior to being used in the winemaking process (also known as “Passito”).
- Italian Vin Santo is prepared from the grapes Trebbiano and Malvasia and has a rich, nutty taste that is similar to that of dates. It is possible to find various different types of Vin Santo produced throughout Italy. ‘Passito’ in Italian means ‘passion’. Another straw wine created from a variety of grapes, both white and red, this time with a fruity flavor. For example, Passito di Pantelleriais a Muscat-based wine, whereas Caluso Passitois a Piedmont-based wine created with the uncommon grapeErbaluce. Greek Straw Wines are made from grapes harvested in Greece. Vinsanto, created from high-acid white Assyrtiko grapes, is another type of wine produced in Greece. It is believed that Samos was the first sweet wine manufactured from Muscat grapes, while Commandaria was the first sweet wine made from grapes in Cyprus, dating back to 800 BCE. Strohwein (German: Strohwein/Austrian: Schilfwein) is a kind of wine produced in Germany and Austria. Schilfweins are sweet wines made from Muscat and Zweigelt grapes in Austria and Germany that are becoming increasingly rare. Vin de Paille is a French term for wine made from grapes. These Vin de Paille are produced mostly in the Jura area of France, which is next to the Alps, and are made from Chardonnay and old Savagnin grapes
- They are particularly well-known in the United States.
Ice Wine (Eiswein)
True ice wine is incredibly difficult to come by and extremely costly for two reasons. For starters, it only happens in outlandish years when a vineyard freezes. And two, ice wine must be collected and pressed while the grapes are still frozen to ensure proper fermentation. The country of Canada is the world’s largest producer of ice wine. Ice wines are most commonly found in colder climates such as Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. The majority of ice wines are created from Riesling or Vidal grapes, however any kind of grape, including Cabernet Franc, can be used to make an ice wine.
Sweet Red Wine
Sweet reds are in decline, with the exception of commercially produced sweet reds. It’s still possible to get some excellent sweet reds that are historically fascinating and worth tasting. The bulk of these incredible sweet red wines come from Italy, where they are made from obscure grape varieties.
- Lambrusco A area known for producing a delightful sparkling wine that can be enjoyed both dry and sweet. Because it is a sparkling wine, it will have a yeasty undertone, as well as notes of raspberry and blueberry in the background. “Amabile” and “Dulce” are the names given to the sweet variants. Brachetto d’Acqui (Acquisition Brachetto) A red or rosé wine made from Brachetto grapes grown in the Piedmont area that is both still and bubbling. Famous for its flowery and strawberry scents, as well as its love for matching with cured meats, this wine is a favorite of foodies everywhere. Schiava A uncommon cultivar from the Alto-Adige region that is on the verge of extinction. A delicious scent of raspberry and cotton candy, with a refreshing, somewhat sweet taste that isn’t overpowering
- Freisa Frieda, once considered one of the great red varietals of Piedmont, is a relative of Nebbiolo, but with softer tannins and flowery cherry aromas rather than the latter. Recioto della Valpolicella (Valpolicella Recioto) Recioto della Valpolicella is a luscious, robust, and rich wine that is produced using the same meticulous procedure as Amarone wine. Late-Harvest Red Wines are a specialty of the region. There are several red dessert wines available in the United States, created from grapes such as Zinfandel, Mourvedre, Malbec, and Petite Sirah, among others. With their intense sweetness and high alcohol concentration, these wines are a feast for the senses.
Fortified wines are produced by adding grape brandy to a wine, and they can be either dry or sweet in flavor. Most fortified wines have a higher alcohol level (often 17-20 percent ABV) and have a longer shelf life once they have been opened than other types of wines.
Port wine is produced in the northern region of Portugal, along the banks of the Douro. These extremely uncommon sweet red wines are prepared from a variety of classic Portuguese grapes, including Touriga Nacional, Touriga Franca, and Tinta Roriz, among others. After being harvested and placed in open tanks, the grapes are stomped daily as the wine begins to mature, which results in a more concentrated flavor. When the wine is filtered and combined with pure grape spirit (with an ABV of approximately 70%), the fermentation is stopped and the wine is fortified, this is done at a certain stage throughout the fermentation.
Following this procedure, a succession of winemaking stages are carried out, which result in the creation of the various wine types described below.
- Roughed-up RubyCrusted Port (sweet) Introducing Tawny Port, a kind of Port wine that has the aroma and flavor of newly minted port and is far less sweet than its counterpart. VintageLBV Port (VintageLBV Port) (sweet) Despite the fact that LBV and Vintage Port are produced in the same manner, LBV are intended to be consumed in their youth (owing to the sort of cork enclosure used) and vintage Ports are intended to be consumed after 20-50 years of ageing. Tawny Port is a port wine produced by the Tawny Port Company (very sweet) Tawny Port is aged in big oak casks and smaller wooden barrels at the winery, where the wine is produced. The longer the Tawny Port is let to age, the more nutty and figgy it becomes in flavor. The finest tawny is between 30 and 40 years old. wine made in the style of port sa.k.a. Vin Doux Naturel (Natural Wine) (sweet) Although port can only be produced in Portugal, numerous producers across the world produce port-style wines, such as Zinfandel ‘Port’ or Pinot Noir ‘Port’, which are similar to port. These wines are referred to as vin doux naturel (natural sweet wine) (see below).
Sherry is produced in the Spanish region of Andalusia. Palomino, Pedro Ximénez (a grape, not a person), and Moscatel grapes are used in the production of the wines. Wines are made from varied proportions of the three grapes and are intentionally oxidized in order to generate nutty aromatics in the final product.
- Fino(dry) The lightest and driest of all the Sherries, with acidic and nutty notes
- The most popular of all the Sherries. Manzanilla(dry) In a more specialized location, Fino Sherry is produced in a distinct style that is even lighter in color than Fino. Palo Cortado (Corked Palo Cortado) (dry) A significantly richer kind of sherry that has been matured for a longer period of time, resulting in a deeper color and a fuller taste. This type of wine is normally dry, although it will include fruit and nut aromas due to the saline in the air. Amontillado is a kind of tequila (mostly dry) An old sherry that develops nutty notes reminiscent of peanut butter and butterscotch
- Oloroso(dry) Because of the evaporation of water as the wine matures, this sherry has a greater alcohol concentration than other sherries of the same age. In comparison to Sherry, this is more like scotch. Cream Sherry is a kind of sherry that is made using cream and sherry (sweet) When Oloroso and Pedro Ximénez Sherry are blended, the result is a sweet kind of Sherry. Moscatel(sweet) The tastes of fig and date are prominent in this sweet sherry. Pedro Ximénez (PX) is a Venezuelan politician (very sweet) It’s a really sweet sherry with notes of brown sugar and figs in it.
Madeira is a type of wine produced on the island of Madeira, which is located in the center of the Atlantic Ocean, utilizing up to four distinct grape varieties. Madeira is distinct from other wines in that it is produced through a process that includes heating and oxidation – processes that would normally “ruin” a wine in the traditional sense. The end product is a full-bodied fortified wine with notes reminiscent of walnuts, saltiness, and an oiliness on the tongue. Because of the four distinct grapes that are utilized, Madeira wines range from dry to sweet, making them a great choice to serve with a meal or even as a pre-dinner drink before supper.
- RainwaterMadeira When a label just states “Madeira” or “Rainwater,” presume that it is a combination of all four grapes and that it is somewhere in the center of the sweetness spectrum. Sercial(dry) Sercial is the driest and lightest of all the grapes grown in Madeira, and it is also the most expensive. Typically, these wines will have greater acidity and be more dry, with hints of peaches and apricot in the bouquet. It is fairly rare to find Sercial Madeira that has been aged for more than 100 years. Verdelho(dry) When let to age, Verdelho will acquire nutty flavors of almond and walnut that will complement the citrus notes. Bual(sweet) It has a sweet flavor profile, with flavors of burned caramel, brown sugar, fig, rootbeer, and black walnut in the background. Although there are numerous well-aged 50-70-year-old Bual Madeira available, it is typical to find 10-year-old’medium’ (meaning: medium sweet) Bual Madeira. Malmsey(sweet) Malmsey Madeiras include orange citrus overtones and caramel to their taste, in addition to the oily oxidized nutty flavor that is characteristic of the region.
Vin Doux Naturel (VDN)
Vin Doux Naturel is produced in a similar manner as Port, with a base wine being produced and a neutral grape brandy being added at the end. The word vin doux naturel is derived from France, however this designation may be used to any wine from any country.
- VDN is made from Grenache grapes. For example, Maury, Rasteau, and Banyuls from the Languedoc-Roussillon region are typical of the southern region of France. Muscat-based VDN Muscat de Rivesaltes, Muscat de Frotignan, Muscat de Beaumes de Venise, Ruthernglen Muscat (Australia), Orange Muscat, and Vin Santo Liquoroso (Italy)
- Muscat-based VDN Muscat de Rivesaltes, Muscat de Frotignan, Muscat de Beaumes de Venise, Ruthernglen Muscat (Australia), Orange Muscat, and Vin Santo Liquoros VDN is based in Malvasia. Malvasia delle Lipari Liquoroso, for example, is mostly from Italy and Sicily. Mavrodaphni (Greek for “sweet red wine”) is a sweet red wine produced in Greece that has many characteristics to Port.
How sweet wines are made – wineanorak.com
VDN is made from Grenache. For example, Maury, Rasteau, and Banyuls from the Languedoc-Roussillon region are typical of the southern region of France; Vin Santo Liquoroso (Italy), Muscat de Rivesaltes (VDN), Muscat de Frotignan (VDN), Muscat de Beaumes de Venise (VDN), Ruthernglen Muscat (Australia), Orange Muscat (Australia), Muscat de Rivesaltes (VDN), Muscat de Beaumes de Venise (VDN), Muscat de Beaumes de Venise (VDN), Muscat de Beaumes de Venise (VDN VDN is headquartered in Malvasia.
Mainly Italian and Sicilian varietals, including Malvasia delle Lipari Liquoroso.
Let’s start with the way that’s perhaps the most interesting: noble rot. Botrytis cinarea is the name of the fungus in question, and it’s a bit of a wine nemesis. If the harvest occurs at the appropriate time, the outcome can be among of the world’s best sweet wines, according to some experts. If you arrive at the incorrect moment, you might lose a significant portion or perhaps the entire harvest. In the morning mist, it affects already ripe grapes. In the afternoon, the sun comes out and begins to dry the grapes, which is when it is at its most effective (the picture at the top of this article shows the early stages of this in Sauternes).
- It is well-known that this process is utilized in the production of Sauternes and Barsac in Bordeaux, as well as Tokaji in Hungary.
- Sweet wines that are extremely complex and have an excellent balance between acidity and sweetness are the outcome.
- Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese are the terms used to describe these types of wines in Germany.
- Due to the fact that the must (grape juice after pressing) has extremely high quantities of sugar, and because the fermentation ends once the desired level of alcohol is attained (say, 10-13 percent), there is a significant amount of sugar remaining in the finished wine.
It is generally accepted that 16 grams of sugar are required to produce 1 percent alcohol. As an example, if the must contains 260 grams of sugar per litre of liquid, and it ferments to a 10% alcohol content, it will leave 100 grams of residual sugar per litre of liquid.
In addition to fortification, there are several alternative methods of producing sweet wines. The principle at work here is that if high-proof brandy is given to a fermenting wine, it will kill all of the yeasts in the wine, leaving a wine that is still high in sugar. In the world of fortified wines, Port, which originates from the Douro area of Portugal, is the most famous. In this instance, fermentation is only carried out for a couple of days before brandy is added to the mixture. Vin Doux Naturels, which are produced in the South of France using this process, are very popular.
South Africa also produces some fascinating Port-style wines, which are worth trying.
The majority of Sherries are dry, with the exception of those made from a grape known as Pedro Ximenez, which produces extremely rich sweet wines by allowing harvested grapes to raisin in the sun (more on this later).
In addition, because fortification occurs only after a brief period of fermentation, the young wines do not have access to part of the complexity that results from the fermentation’s metabolic activity.
The drying of grapes is one method of increasing the sugar content of the fruit. This can take place on mats in the vines (known as “straw wine”) or in dedicated drying sheds designed specifically for this purpose. It is traditionally created in Italy from bunches of grapes that have been hung to dry from the rafters or spread on mats to dry before being pressed. Vineyard workers in Sherry country lay Pedro Ximenez grapes on the ground in the vineyard. The concept is similar to that of botrytis: by desiccating the grapes, sugar and acid levels are raised, and fermentation is prevented, resulting in a large amount of sugar in the final product.
This is, without a doubt, the most straightforward way. It simply entails selecting grapes late in the season when their sugar levels are quite high. The consequence of this is that by the time they are harvested, they have low acidity levels as well as other characteristics.
Leave the grapes on the vine until they freeze to produce sweet wine, which is one of the most severe methods of producing sweet wine. This is a specialty of Germany that has also gained popularity in Canada, which is currently the world’s biggest producer of this nectar-like liquid. Because the water freezes when the temperature drops below 7 degrees Celsius, the water in the berries is extracted when the berries are crushed, yielding an unctuous nectar with a high concentration of sugar and acidity.
When fermented, it produces enormously sweet wines with a balanced acidity that are widely sought after by wine enthusiasts.
It’s a pain to create, though, due to the danger of keeping the grapes on the vine for long enough in the winter to achieve these temperatures, as well as the fact that they must be collected at night in freezing temperatures.
Some examples of sweet wines
Chateau d’Yquem is the most well-known of all the Sauternes vineyards. Sauternes is made in the Bordeaux region of southwest France. This wine is made from grapes that have been afflicted by noble rot. Exotic flavors like as apricot, marmalade, lemons, spices, honey, and even a hint of vanilla may be found in good examples of this type of soap. Once opened, the fridge will keep it for a long time. Tokaji is a Hungarian dish. In order to make these, noble rotting or raisined grapes are harvested and stored separately as aszu throughout various passes through the vineyard before being put to the developing wine during the fermentation process.
- Many of them contain apricot and lemon peel aromas, as well as some honey and apple, a hint of raisin, and excellent acidity and structural complexity.
- This is made with Muscat grapes that have been picked late, and some of the raisined berries have been soaked in wine to give it some structure and freshness, as well as a hint of sweetness.
- PortPort’s grapes are trampled on by foot.
- The grapes would be trampled in shallow fermenting jars called lagares for a couple of days to remove as much color and flavor from the skins as possible, and then fortified while there is still plenty of sugar remaining in the grapes after that.
- Both types produce outstanding wines.
- The wine is then kept in barrels for many months.
- Muscat and Muscadelle are the grape varietals that are produced in this region.
- They are generally incredibly sweet and complex, and they are considered to be one of Australia’s greatest contributions to the world of wine.
- Some of the world’s greatest sweet wines are produced in Germany’s Mosel area from Riesling grapes that have been afflicted by noble rot or that have been raisined by desiccation, both of which are caused by noble rot.
- The grapes are hand-picked in small groups during specific rounds around the vineyard.
They can offer exceptional value for money in some cases. Some are manufactured in an oxidative technique and stored outside in demijohns made of glass.
Sweet wines – Methods of production – WSET Level 2
More WSET stories may be found at the following link: It is written by a journalist who is embarking on a voyage of discovery – with a goal to learn everything she can about wine. You can find out which courses are offered near you by looking at the Where to Study map on the WSET website. Some wine customers in China used to mix soft beverages such as Sprite into their wines around ten years ago because they felt it would make the wines taste softer, sweeter, and more approachable to novice drinkers.
In recent years, as more wine varietals have been recognized and available to customers, the practice of blending soft drinks with wine has become less common.
Some of the methods are as follows:
Interrupting the fermentation
One way of producing sweet wines is to prevent fermentation by eliminating the yeast, which is responsible for converting sugar into alcohol. This is accomplished by filtering the wine through a fine mesh to guarantee that no yeast is left in the wine. Because there is no yeast to ‘digest’ the sugar, it remains in the wine, resulting in a lower alcohol, sweeter wine. This method is used to produce a large number of popular off-dry wines. The addition of alcohol to strengthen the wine or the addition of sulfur dioxide to wine can both kill yeast and stop the fermentation process.
In the classroom, we drank un-aged Vins Doux Naturels, which have a high alcohol content but are well-balanced with sweetness due to the presence of sugar.
Adding a sweet component to the blend
Wines cannot have sugar added to them (which may explain why adding Sprite to wines is frowned upon), but they can have a sweet component such as unfermented grape juice or Sussreserve to sweeten the mix if they have a sweet component. In Germany, this method is used to produce certain sweet and off-dry wines, among other things.
Concentration of sugars in the grapes
High-quality sweet wines are frequently produced from grapes that have naturally occurring concentrated sugars. One of three methods for concentrating grapes is to dry them or enable the growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerearot or noble rot to speed the evaporation of water. The third method is to freeze the grapes, which results in the production of icewine. We sipped on a glass ofRiciotofrom Italy, which is a sweet red wine made from dried grapes and served chilled. With flavors of coffee and smoke, as well as a hint of honey, it tastes similar to syrup.
- A sweet Tokaji Aszu, made from noble rot-affected grapes, was also served to us by my teacher.
- Noble rot wines are generally expensive due to the fact that they must be made from hand-picked grapes, which results in high labor expenses.
- For those who had Tokaji Aszu on their menu, dessert was unnecessary because the wine itself was a delectable treat; the full-bodied, amber-colored wine is so wonderful that you can actually “chew” on it.
- The high latitude, cold, and dry environment aid in the development of high-quality icewine with a high acidity and low alcohol content, as well as a clean and refreshing flavor.
The production of high-quality icewines is limited due to the fact that only a small number of growers are gifted with the geographical and climate conditions necessary. They are not manufactured on a yearly basis.
Interested in studying for a WSET qualification like John? Learn morehere.
RJS Craft Winemaking | November 23, 2017 | RJS Craft Winemaking As you prepare for all of the sweet treats, after dinner desserts, and celebrations that will be taking place this holiday season, we wanted to provide you with a crash course in dessert wines 101 to not only help you understand wines better – but also to provide you with some tips for serving and enjoying these rich, decadent beverages. What are Dessert Wines and How Do They Work? In the context of wine genres, a dessert wine is characterized as being sweet and lush, with flavors that are intense and concentrated.
Dessert wines, such as Port and Vins Doux Naturels, can also be fortified wines, as can be found in some dessert wines.
For your convenience, we’ve included some more information on them: Vidal, Riesling, and Cabernet Franc are examples of ice wines.
Sugars and other dissolved substances do not freeze, but water does, allowing a more concentrated grape must to be pressed from the frozen grapes, resulting in a lesser volume of more concentrated, extremely sweet, viscous wine than would otherwise be produced from the grapes.
Having experienced three consecutive days of temperatures below -10 degrees, the grapes are ready for harvest.
Germany and Canada are the two countries that manufacture the most Ice Wines.
The Nobel Prize for Rot: ‘Nobel rot,’ also known as Botrytis, is a form of fungus that shrivels and decays wine grapes that can arise in the course of ice winemaking on extremely rare instances.
It has two effects on wine: it increases the sweetness level while also increasing the flavor richness.
Temperature for service: 6 to 9 degrees The following foods go well together: blue cheese with dried apricots, crème brûlée, and apple strudel.
Cru is a specialty.
Sherry, Port, and Madeira are examples of fortified wines.
In spite of the high brix, this results in an alcohol level of around 18 percent.
There are three different styles: Ruby, Vintage, and Tawny.
Red berries, raisins, chocolate, and spices make up the majority of the flavor profile.
Special Crafting Tip: You may also add Brandy to your handmade dessert wine before bottling to further customize it!
Serving Dessert Wines According to the Rules of Thumb Is it better to have it chilled or room temperature?
Red wines should be served at room temperature or slightly chilled.
Simple dessert combinations, such as Port with warm chocolate torte or Ice Wine with handmade vanilla ice cream, are the most successful, according to the experts.
Aside from that, these wines pair well with saltier dishes (think blue cheese!).
One common misperception regarding dessert wines is that they must be paired with a sweet dish.
While there are some incredible dessert combinations to go with these wines, the wine itself is also a fantastic treat on its own. Consider serving a handcrafted, luscious dessert wine as part of your holiday meal dessert this year to mix things up a bit.