5 Types of Dessert Wine
Switch up the hefty dessert with something that will make your tastebuds glitter instead. Learn about the five primary varieties of dessert wines, ranging from the delightfully effervescent Moscato d’Asti to the dark and gloomy vintage Port of the world. Dessert wines are supposed to be sipped from tiny glasses and cherished in the same way that a fine Scotch is. Sparkling, light sweet, rich sweet, sweet red and fortified are the five varieties of dessert wines that may be found on the market.
Types of Dessert Wines
- Sweet Red Wine
- Fortified Wine
- Sparkling Dessert Wine
- Lightly Sweet Dessert Wine
- Richly Sweet Dessert Wine
A Guide to Dessert Wines
Sweet wine is made from grapes that are exceptionally sweet! In order to produce sweet wine, the fermentation process must be stopped before the yeast has converted all of the grape sugars to alcohol. To stop fermentations, numerous techniques are available, including super-cooling the wine or adding brandy to the mixture. The end product is a full-bodied wine that has been naturally sweetened with grape sugars. Despite the fact that there are hundreds of different varieties of dessert wines available on the market, the majority of them fall into five broad categories.
Take a look at all five kinds for a comprehensive look at dessert wines.
Sparkling Dessert Wine
Wine made from sweet grapes is called “sweet wine.” The fermentation process is stopped before the yeast has converted all of the grape sugars to alcohol, which results in a sweet wine being produced. To stop fermentations, numerous techniques are available, including freezing the wine or adding brandy to it. With natural grape sugars added to the mix, the result is a rich, full-bodied wine. Despite the fact that there are hundreds of distinct varieties of dessert wines available on the market, the majority of them fall into one of five broad classifications.
To have a thorough understanding of dessert wines, try all five kinds.
- Demi-Sec* (which translates as “off-dry” in French)
- Amabile (which translates as “slightly sweet” in Italian)
- Semi Secco* (which translates as “off-dry” in Italian)
- French for “sweet,” Dolce / Dulce (Italian for “sweet,” Spanish for “sweet,” and Moelleux (French for “sweet,” for some French wines)
- Doux (French for “sweet,” Dolce / Dulce (Italian for “sweet,” Spanish for “sweet”)
*Not to be confused with the terms “sec” or “secco,” which are used to describe dryness in both French and Italian.
Lightly-Sweet Dessert Wine
Lightly sweet wines have a delightful sweetness to them, making them ideal for a hot afternoon. Many of these sweet wines go well with spicy dishes such as Indian or Southeast Asian cuisine, which is why they are so popular. Lightly sweet wines are best consumed as soon as possible after the vintage date, with the exception of a few exceptional examples, such as German Riesling, which may be savored for several years after the vintage date. Expect these wines to be bursting with fruit tastes and well-suited for desserts that are fruit-based or vanilla-driven.
Fruit tarts and a Gewürztraminer go together like peanut butter and jelly.
- Gewürztraminer Alsace, Alto-Adige (Italy), California, and New Zealand are all places where you may get this extremely flowery wine with modest alcohol content: Riesling Available in both dry styles (which are popular in Australia, Alsace, and the United States) and sweeter styles (which are more usually found in Germany). A wine with a high level of natural acidity, which helps to cut through the sweetness of the flavor
- Müller-Thurgau A less common type, also from Germany, that may be found in some regions of Oregon and has flowery scents and a little softer acidity than the other varieties. Porch wine is a classic and is especially good with sausages. Chenin Blanc is a white wine produced in France. When it comes to Chenin Blanc, a sweeter flavor is more frequent in the United States, although it is also produced in significant quantities in South Africa and France’s Loire Valley region. When purchasing Chenin Blanc, pay close attention to the label because many South African and French producers produce dry versions that taste more like a dry Sauvignon Blanc
- When purchasing Viognier, pay close attention to the label because many South African and French producers create dry versions that taste more like a dry Sauvignon Blanc
- The majority of the time, viognier is not sweet. However, because it is an aromatic grape type, you might occasionally encounter it in a fruit-driven style that smells like peaches and perfume. It has a thick, oily texture on the palate. This kind of Viognier may be found exclusively in Condrieu AOP (Rhône Valley) in France
- It is also known as “Condrieu Blanc.”
Richly Sweet Dessert Wine
With the best quality fruits and in an unfortified manner, these richly sweet wines are produced. Sugar and acidity allow many of these wines to retain their fresh flavor even after 50 years or more in the bottle. For example, the HungarianTokaji (pronounced “toe-kye”) was a favorite of the Tzars of Russia, while South African Constantia was a favorite of both the Dutch and the English.
The FrenchSauternes was a favorite of Americans in the early 1800’s and is still popular today. There are numerous methods for producing highly sweet dessert wines, and you may gain a better understanding of them by looking at how they are prepared.
Late harvest refers to precisely what it says on the tin. With each additional day that grapes are allowed to hang on the vine, they get progressively sweeter and more raisinated, culminating in grapes with concentrated sweetness. “Vendage Tardive” is the term used in Alsace to describe late harvest, whereas “Spätlese” is used in Germany to describe late harvest. Late harvest wines can be made from any grape that has been left on the vine. Having said that, late-harvest wines made from Chenin Blanc, Sémillon, and Riesling grapes are becoming increasingly popular.
Noble rot is caused by a kind of spore known as Botrytis cinerea, which feeds on fruits and vegetables. Noble rot, despite the fact that it sounds (and seems) awful, imparts distinct notes of ginger, saffron, and honey to sweet wines. There are several different varieties of dessert wines derived from noble rot grapes that are widely available.
- Sauternais Sémillon and Sauvignon Blanc are blended together in Sauternes, Barsac, Cadillac, and Monbazillac to produce a rich, golden-hued sweet wine. A collection of French Appellations in and around Bordeaux, including Sauternes, Barsac, Cadillac, and Monbazillac
- Tokaji Tokaji Asz is a Hungarian wine created from Furmint grapes
- Auslese, BA, and TBA Riesling (BA = Beerenauslese, TBA = Trockenbeerenauslese)
- And Auslese, BA, and TBA Riesling (BA = Beerenauslese, TBA = Trockenbeerenauslese). Auslese is the first level of the German Pradikat system (a sweetness labeling system), and it has a larger proportion of botrytis-affected grapes than any other level. In addition to being sweeter than German Rieslings from the “QbA” and “Kabinett” varieties, they often have a greater alcohol content.
The grapes are put out on straw mats to raisinate prior to being used in the winemaking process (also known as “Passito”).
- Italian Vin Santo is prepared from the grapes Trebbiano and Malvasia and has a rich, nutty taste that is similar to that of dates. It is possible to find various different types of Vin Santo produced throughout Italy. ‘Passito’ in Italian means ‘passion’. Another straw wine created from a variety of grapes, both white and red, this time with a fruity flavor. For example, Passito di Pantelleriais a Muscat-based wine, whereas Caluso Passitois a Piedmont-based wine created with the uncommon grapeErbaluce. Greek Straw Wines are made from grapes harvested in Greece. Vinsanto, created from high-acid white Assyrtiko grapes, is another type of wine produced in Greece. It is believed that Samos was the first sweet wine manufactured from Muscat grapes, while Commandaria was the first sweet wine made from grapes in Cyprus, dating back to 800 BCE. Strohwein (German: Strohwein/Austrian: Schilfwein) is a kind of wine produced in Germany and Austria. Schilfweins are sweet wines made from Muscat and Zweigelt grapes in Austria and Germany that are becoming increasingly rare. Vin de Paille is a French term for wine made from grapes. These Vin de Paille are produced mostly in the Jura area of France, which is next to the Alps, and are made from Chardonnay and old Savagnin grapes
- They are particularly well-known in the United States.
Ice Wine (Eiswein)
True ice wine is incredibly difficult to come by and extremely costly for two reasons. For starters, it only happens in outlandish years when a vineyard freezes. And two, ice wine must be collected and pressed while the grapes are still frozen to ensure proper fermentation. The country of Canada is the world’s largest producer of ice wine. Ice wines are most commonly found in colder climates such as Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. The majority of ice wines are created from Riesling or Vidal grapes, however any kind of grape, including Cabernet Franc, can be used to make an ice wine.
Sweet Red Wine
Sweet reds are in decline, with the exception of commercially produced sweet reds. It’s still possible to get some excellent sweet reds that are historically fascinating and worth tasting. The bulk of these incredible sweet red wines come from Italy, where they are made from obscure grape varieties.
- Lambrusco A area known for producing a delightful sparkling wine that can be enjoyed both dry and sweet. Because it is a sparkling wine, it will have a yeasty undertone, as well as notes of raspberry and blueberry in the background. “Amabile” and “Dulce” are the names given to the sweet variants. Brachetto d’Acqui (Acquisition Brachetto) A red or rosé wine made from Brachetto grapes grown in the Piedmont area that is both still and bubbling. Famous for its flowery and strawberry scents, as well as its love for matching with cured meats, this wine is a favorite of foodies everywhere. Schiava A uncommon cultivar from the Alto-Adige region that is on the verge of extinction. A delicious scent of raspberry and cotton candy, with a refreshing, somewhat sweet taste that isn’t overpowering
- Freisa Frieda, once considered one of the great red varietals of Piedmont, is a relative of Nebbiolo, but with softer tannins and flowery cherry aromas rather than the latter. Recioto della Valpolicella (Valpolicella Recioto) Recioto della Valpolicella is a luscious, robust, and rich wine that is produced using the same meticulous procedure as Amarone wine. Late-Harvest Red Wines are a specialty of the region. There are several red dessert wines available in the United States, created from grapes such as Zinfandel, Mourvedre, Malbec, and Petite Sirah, among others. With their intense sweetness and high alcohol concentration, these wines are a feast for the senses.
Fortified wines are produced by adding grape brandy to a wine, and they can be either dry or sweet in flavor. Most fortified wines have a higher alcohol level (often 17-20 percent ABV) and have a longer shelf life once they have been opened than other types of wines.
Port wine is produced in the northern region of Portugal, along the banks of the Douro. These extremely uncommon sweet red wines are prepared from a variety of classic Portuguese grapes, including Touriga Nacional, Touriga Franca, and Tinta Roriz, among others. After being harvested and placed in open tanks, the grapes are stomped daily as the wine begins to mature, which results in a more concentrated flavor. When the wine is filtered and combined with pure grape spirit (with an ABV of approximately 70%), the fermentation is stopped and the wine is fortified, this is done at a certain stage throughout the fermentation.
Following this procedure, a succession of winemaking stages are carried out, which result in the creation of the various wine types described below.
- Roughed-up RubyCrusted Port (sweet) Introducing Tawny Port, a kind of Port wine that has the aroma and flavor of newly minted port and is far less sweet than its counterpart. VintageLBV Port (VintageLBV Port) (sweet) Despite the fact that LBV and Vintage Port are produced in the same manner, LBV are intended to be consumed in their youth (owing to the sort of cork enclosure used) and vintage Ports are intended to be consumed after 20-50 years of ageing. Tawny Port is a port wine produced by the Tawny Port Company (very sweet) Tawny Port is aged in big oak casks and smaller wooden barrels at the winery, where the wine is produced. The longer the Tawny Port is let to age, the more nutty and figgy it becomes in flavor. The finest tawny is between 30 and 40 years old. wine made in the style of port sa.k.a. Vin Doux Naturel (Natural Wine) (sweet) Although port can only be produced in Portugal, numerous producers across the world produce port-style wines, such as Zinfandel ‘Port’ or Pinot Noir ‘Port’, which are similar to port. These wines are referred to as vin doux naturel (natural sweet wine) (see below).
Sherry is produced in the Spanish region of Andalusia. Palomino, Pedro Ximénez (a grape, not a person), and Moscatel grapes are used in the production of the wines. Wines are made from varied proportions of the three grapes and are intentionally oxidized in order to generate nutty aromatics in the final product.
- Fino(dry) The lightest and driest of all the Sherries, with acidic and nutty notes
- The most popular of all the Sherries. Manzanilla(dry) In a more specialized location, Fino Sherry is produced in a distinct style that is even lighter in color than Fino. Palo Cortado (Corked Palo Cortado) (dry) A significantly richer kind of sherry that has been matured for a longer period of time, resulting in a deeper color and a fuller taste. This type of wine is normally dry, although it will include fruit and nut aromas due to the saline in the air. Amontillado is a kind of tequila (mostly dry) An old sherry that develops nutty notes reminiscent of peanut butter and butterscotch
- Oloroso(dry) Because of the evaporation of water as the wine matures, this sherry has a greater alcohol concentration than other sherries of the same age. In comparison to Sherry, this is more like scotch. Cream Sherry is a kind of sherry that is made using cream and sherry (sweet) When Oloroso and Pedro Ximénez Sherry are blended, the result is a sweet kind of Sherry. Moscatel(sweet) The tastes of fig and date are prominent in this sweet sherry. Pedro Ximénez (PX) is a Venezuelan politician (very sweet) It’s a really sweet sherry with notes of brown sugar and figs in it.
Fino(dry) All of the Sherries have sour and nutty notes, but this one is the lightest and most dry of them all. Manzanilla(dry) In a more specialized locale, Fino Sherry is produced in a distinct style that is even lighter in body than Fino. A Cortado is a cortado that has been brewed in a traditional manner (dry) Longer aging produces a deeper color and a fuller taste in this significantly richer kind of sherry. This type of wine is normally dry, but it will include fruit and nut notes that are enhanced by the salt.
Oloroso(dry) Because of the evaporation of water as the wine ages, a highly old and dark sherry with a greater alcohol concentration can be found.
Cream Sherry is a kind of sherry that is made using cream and sherry grape must (sweet) When Oloroso and Pedro Ximénez Sherry are combined, the result is a sweet kind of Sherry.
César Pedro Ximenez, also known as PX, is a Mexican politician (very sweet) It’s an extremely sweet sherry with notes of brown sugar and figs;
- RainwaterMadeira When a label just states “Madeira” or “Rainwater,” presume that it is a combination of all four grapes and that it is somewhere in the center of the sweetness spectrum. Sercial(dry) Sercial is the driest and lightest of all the grapes grown in Madeira, and it is also the most expensive. Typically, these wines will have greater acidity and be more dry, with hints of peaches and apricot in the bouquet. It is fairly rare to find Sercial Madeira that has been aged for more than 100 years. Verdelho(dry) When let to age, Verdelho will acquire nutty flavors of almond and walnut that will complement the citrus notes. Bual(sweet) It has a sweet flavor profile, with flavors of burned caramel, brown sugar, fig, rootbeer, and black walnut in the background. Although there are numerous well-aged 50-70-year-old Bual Madeira available, it is typical to find 10-year-old’medium’ (meaning: medium sweet) Bual Madeira. Malmsey(sweet) Malmsey Madeiras include orange citrus overtones and caramel to their taste, in addition to the oily oxidized nutty flavor that is characteristic of the region.
Vin Doux Naturel (VDN)
Vin Doux Naturel is produced in a similar manner as Port, with a base wine being produced and a neutral grape brandy being added at the end. The word vin doux naturel is derived from France, however this designation may be used to any wine from any country.
- VDN based on Grenache that is often produced in the south of France, such as Maury, Rasteau, and Banyuls from Languedoc-Roussillon
- Muscat-based VDN Muscat de Rivesaltes, Muscat de Frotignan, Muscat de Beaumes de Venise, Ruthernglen Muscat (Australia), Orange Muscat, and Vin Santo Liquoroso (Italy)
- Muscat-based VDN Muscat de Rivesaltes, Muscat de Frotignan, Muscat de Beaumes de Venise, Ruthernglen Muscat (Australia), Orange Muscat, and Vin Santo Liquoros Most malvasia-based VDN comes from Italy and Sicily, and some of the best examples include Malvasia delle Lipari Liquoroso
- Mavrodaphni (Greek for “sweet red wine”) is a sweet red wine produced in Greece that has many characteristics to Port.
The Ultimate Guide To Dessert Wines + Infographic!
“I prefer any sort of wine, but it needs to be dry,” says the author of the book. The popularity of dry wines has soared in recent years, maybe as a reaction to the era of White Zinfandel and Blue Nun that characterized the wine business in the past. Dessert wines, which are some of the most historically significant, complex, and long-lived wines on the planet, are hardly on the radar of most wine enthusiasts because of the passionate aversion to sweet wines that exists. Dessert wines, on the other hand, should not be overlooked; they should be utilized to enrich the post-dinner experience.
The process of utilizing the wine to enhance the dessert and vice versa can result in some truly amazing combinations of flavors.
These wines range from less sweet to more sweet, from light to super-boozy, and from best when consumed young to best when matured for decades. As a result, we’ve compiled the best guide to dessert wines that will satisfy each palate and any occasion.
Fortified wines, one of the most historically significant categories of wine, are produced by adding grape spirit (brandy) to a wine during or after fermentation, depending on whether the winemaker wishes the finished wine to be dry or sweet. Fortified wines are produced in two ways: during fermentation or after fermentation. Wine that has been fortified before fermentation has ended will be sweet because there will still be sugar in the wine itself, but a wine that has been fortified after fermentation will be dry because there will be no sugar in the wine itself.
Wine drinkers — mostly the English – learned to like the style, and the technique became established.
Sherry is one of the world’s coolest and most flexible dessert wines, yet it is typically avoided by wine enthusiasts because it might be scary to drink. The reason for this is that sherry, which is produced in a variety of various styles in the hot, southern Spanish area of Jerez, has a variety of personalities rather than a single one. There are three types of grapes that may be used to make Sherry: Palomino Fino, which accounts for the vast bulk of the country’s Sherry production, Pedro Ximénez (often known as “PX”), and Moscatel.
However, despite the fact that there are several Sherry classifications, the most straightforward method is to divide them into two categories: dry versus sweet, and oxidative against non-oxidative.
They should be enjoyed young and should not be stored for long periods of time.
In the middle there’s dry, semi-oxidative/semi-biological Sherry, such as Amontillado and Palo Cortado, which exhibit traits of both types while also having the capacity to mature.
Finally, there are the sweet, oxidative varieties such as Cream, Moscatel, and Pedro Ximénez, all of which have tremendous sweetness, fig-like tastes, and, in the case of Pedro Ximénez, the ability to age if properly produced.
Port, like Sherry, is available in a range of style categories, but unlike Sherry, Port is always sweet and is primarily made from red wine grapes. Port is primarily prepared using the indigenous grape Touriga Nacional, which is grown on terraced vineyards in Portugal’s Douro River Valley, as well as other local supporting grapes. Even though traditionally, Port was vinified in the Douro Valley and then matured downriver in the legendary Port houses of Vila Nova de Gaia, across the river from Porto, many smaller wineries are now opting to age their Port in the same location where it was originally vinified: the Douro Valley.
These include Late-Bottled Vintage (LBV) Ports and Vintage Ports, while LBV Ports and Vintage Ports have far greater concentration and complexity, and will benefit tremendously from bottle aging.
Colheita Tawny is the vintage form of this kind of Port wine, although while the wine may have been matured for a lengthy period of time at the winery, it will not benefit from additional bottle aging in most cases.
If Madeira were to be found in Westeros, it would unquestionably be among the Iron Islands, as it, too, adheres to the motto “What is dead may never die,” which means “What is dead may never die.” As a result of the fact that it has already been practically destroyed, this zombie wine from the warm island of the same name off the Moroccan coast (although it is nominally a Portuguese territory) is the most ageable of all wines.
The vinification process producing Madeira requires frequent heating and purposeful oxidation, two phenomena that are normally associated with the spoilage of fine wine.
It fluctuates in sweetness from drier to sweeter (in order of grape variety), and a bottle called Rainwater is often a mix with a medium level of sweetness.
Madeiras are responsible for many of the world’s oldest bottles of wine remaining in existence; they may endure for millennia and can be left open and out of the fridge for virtually an endless period of time.
Even though Marsala is commonly thought of as a basic cooking wine, it really has a lengthy history and is considered one of the world’s “big three” fortified dessert wines, alongside Sherry, Port, and Madeira, among other things. Marsala is the name of the region in which this fortified wine is produced, which is located around the city of Marsala in the northwestern corner of the island of Sicily and is known for its production of fortified wines. In most cases, it is created from white grapes, however red and ruby variants are available.
Depending on when the wine is fortified during fermentation and whether or not a cooked grape must called mosto cotto is added, the style of Marsala can range from dry to sweet.
This oxidative aging is responsible for the amber colour of Marsala, as well as the rich tastes of nutty, caramel-like, honeyed, and dried fruit.
If you want the best, expect to pay more (read: if it’s less than $10, you probably won’t want to drink it!). Look for bottles branded semi-secco or dolce to assure that you’re getting a sweeter variety.
The region of Rutherglen Muscat is steeped in history, with many of the region’s producers hailing from the fourth or fifth generation of winemaking. While ultra-sweet, fortified wine may not be the first thing that comes to mind when picturing the landscape of Australian wine, Rutherglen Muscat has a long and rich history. In this hot area of Victoria, some three hours northeast of Melbourne, the reddish-skinned white grape (yes, really!) Muscat Rouge à Petits Grains is allowed to ripen on the vine for the majority of the harvest season, allowing the grape to develop sugar.
The result is a deep dark wine with robust flavors of raisin and prune, burned caramel, coffee, roasted almonds, and other fruits.
Banyuls is a dessert wine that is a match made in heaven for those who are die-hard, no-excuse red wine enthusiasts out there. Produced mostly from Grenache grapes in France’s southernmost wine appellation, Banyuls is evocative of young Ruby Port, but with a fuller-bodied red wine flavor. It is produced in France’s southernmost wine appellation, Banyuls, which is quite near to the Spanish border. Banyuls is a fruit-driven wine, despite the fact that it has been matured in barrel. It has strong aromas and flavors of cooked red berries, prunes, and spice, as well as a pronounced tannic structure.
Late-harvested/Noble rot wines
Quite simply, late-harvested wines are those produced from grapes that have been allowed to ripen on the vine until later in the harvest season, allowing them to become extremely ripe and to accumulate significant amounts of sugar. A kind of late-harvest wine, noble rot or botrytized wines are produced when healthy grapes are attacked by a fungus called Botrytis cinerea, which punctures grape skins and causes them to dry, concentrating flavors, sugar and acidity. Botrytis frequently incorporates its own distinct tastes, such as ginger, citrus essence, and honey, into the final product.
In spite of the fact that Riesling is often associated with low-cost, sweet wines, the grape is actually one of the most versatile in the world, capable of producing bone-dry, enamel-stripping wines, lusciously-sweet, high-quality, super-expensive wines, and everything in between. Riesling is planted in many parts of the world, but it is particularly well-suited for making sweet wines in Germany, where the legal quality hierarchy for wines, known as the Pradikat system, is actually based on the quantity of sugar present in each grape at harvest.
Fully botrytized wines (Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese) have a lusciously sweet, orange blossom-like, honeyed richness.
In addition to making excellent ice wine Riesling, Austria also uses the Pradikat technique to produce Riesling, and Canada is also generating great ice wine Riesling.
In general, all of these Rieslings have a low alcohol content, with the sweetest wines having an alcohol percentage in the single digits and an age in the double digits for the sweetest wines.
In spite of the fact that Riesling is often associated with low-cost, sweet wines, the grape is actually one of the most versatile in the world, capable of producing bone-dry, enamel-stripping wines, lusciously-sweet, high-quality, super-expensive wines, and anything in between. Riesling is produced in many parts of the world, but it is particularly well-suited for making sweet wines in Germany, where the legal quality hierarchy for wines, known as the Pradikat system, is actually based on the quantity of sugar present in each grape at the time of harvest.
Sweet wines are made from grape The Eiswein (ice wine) category, which is comprised of wines created from grapes frozen on vines, has as much sugar as botrytized Rieslings, but with fruit tastes that are more pure.
In general, all of these Rieslings have a low alcohol content, with the sweetest wines having an alcohol percentage in the single digits and years of age in the double digits, respectively.
Who would have imagined that Hungary would produce one of the world’s most celebrated sweet wines? Tokaji (not to be confused with its locality, Tokaj) is a wine created from the Furmint grape, which is strong in acidity and highly vulnerable to botrytis. It is most known for itsaszversion, which is prepared from late-harvested, shriveled, botrytis-affected grapes gathered in containers known asputtony. In addition to being very sweet, these barrel-aged Tokaji Asz wines are low in alcohol, have a thick mouthfee, and are frequently heavily honeyed.
It is arguably the sweetest wine on the planet, is extremely uncommon, may mature for more than a century, and is normally sold by the teaspoonful in small quantities.
Late-harvest Chenin Blanc
Chenin Blanc, cultivated in its various Loire Valley appellations, is another of those grapes that everyone knows, yet whether it’s dry or sweet, light or full-bodied, still or sparkling, it’s always extremely Chenin Blanc. Despite being the most well-known Chenin appellation in the Loire Valley, Vouvray can range from dry to sweet in a single location; the designations demi-sec, moelleux, and liquereux will indicate the presence of residual sugar. Sweet Chenin Blanc, on the other hand, achieves its apex in the Coteaux du Layon area of France, where grapes are harvested late in the season in many passes through the vineyard.
With the addition of the subregions of Bonnezeaux and Quarts de Chaume, the wines acquire notes of golden apple, honey, wool, and orange blossom that are highly sought after.
The quantity of sugar in these wines allows them to continue to develop with time, becoming smokier and more fascinating as time goes on.
Dried Grape Wines
Dried grape, or passito, wines are produced using a process that has been employed for centuries in Italy, Greece, and occasionally Austria. After harvest, healthy grapes are purposely dried on straw mats or by hanging grape bunches from rafters, depending on the region. This dehydrates the grapes, concentrating the residual sugar and aromas, and resulting in a sweet wine with clean and raisined tastes that is generally served chilled. Because the juice is effectively being drained from raisins, the passito technique produces less wine than traditional vinification.
Vin Santo del Chianti
The wine known as “holy wine” may be found in numerous parts of Italy (as well as a Greek variation), but this particular variety from the heart of Tuscany is the most well-known. In addition to being fermented in small oak or (traditionally) chestnut barrels, Vin Santo del Chianti undergoes extensive barrel aging: between three and eight years, depending on the variety of grapes used and the amount of barrel aging. The wine is amber in color and made from Trebbiano Toscano and Malvasia grapes that are hung in whole bunches from rafters.
Do you want to try the most classic combination with Vin Santo?
Recioto della Valpolicella
While “holy wine” may be found in numerous locations of Italy (as well as a variation from Greece), this particular kind from the heart of Tuscany is the most well-known and sought-after by tourists. Wine made from Trebbiano Toscano and Malvasia grapes that are hung in whole bunches from the rafters, Vin Santo del Chianti is aged in barrels for three to eight years, depending on the style. The wine is aged in small oak or (traditionally) chestnut barrels, allowing some of the wine to evaporate and concentrate flavors in the remaining amber-colored wine.
So, you’re interested in trying the most classic Vin Santo pairing?
Dessert Wine: Why It’s Different From Other Wines and How to Pair It
In the minds of many, the word “dessert wine” conjures up images of syrupy concoctions that leave a bitter taste in the mouth. For after all, in today’s health-conscious age of low-sugar wines, keto diets, and carb-free living, who wants to drink a cloyinglysweet wine that may send your insulin levels skyrocketing and leave a sticky feeling on your tongue for hours after you’ve finished your glass? (It’s possible that there are a handful of you out there.) While the increasing popularity of dry wines (that is, wines that are not sweet) might appear to spell the end of sweet wines, this is not necessarily the case.
To that end, please allow us to provide you with some background information about dessert wine and how it differs from other types of wines. A helpful list of dessert wines, as well as some enticing food combinations, will be provided as part of the event.
What IsDessert Wine?
Dessert wine may be defined as any wine that is consumed during or after dessert in its broadest meaning. Dessert wine, to be more exact, is often sweet, has a distinct taste, and has a higher alcohol concentration. For example, Port, Madeira, Sherry, and late-harvest wines are all examples of late-harvest wines. Traditionnal dessert wines having an alcohol content of more than 15 percent by volume (ABV). Nonetheless, low-alcoholdessert wines with less than 10% alcohol by volume (ABV) are available, such Muscadet, Moscato d’Asti, and Brachetto d’Acqui.
- In other words, the amount of sugar that is left over after the fermentation process has taken place.
- A variety of methods were used by winemakers to create essert wines.
- It might be created from late-harvest grapes that have been allowed to raisinate and increase in sugar content as a result of being kept on the vine for a longer period of time.
- Alternatively, it may be sweetened by fortification, resulting in the production of fortified wines.
- While most dessert wines are on the sweeter side, there is a wide range of styles available under the category of dessert wines.
- To be clear, dessert wines are not merely sweet, one-trick ponies, as you may have previously believed.
What to Look for inDessert Wine
Dessert wines, as previously said, are available in a variety of sweetness levels and are available in both red and white wines. Enjoying these mouthwatering sippers with dessert or as dessert in and of itself is recommended. Furthermore, it’s important to note that dessert wines are designed to be served in little wine glasses, similar to the way you’d sip on a snifter of whiskey or bourbon. (Although we must admit that we are great supporters of single-serve wine bottles that eliminate the need for a glass entirely.) If you desire a sweet dessert wine, you will get a sweet dessert wine.
Keep an eye out for the following descriptors:
Different Types ofDessert Winesand Food Pairings
While there are a plethora of wines that may be enjoyed with dessert, the ones that are featured below are the best examples of the genre. In order to avoid any unpleasant aftertaste when matching wine with sweet dessert, it’s recommended to pick a wine that is sweeter than the dessert itself. According to our enthralling guide on acidity in wine, sugar increases acidity, which is why dry wines taste harsh and sharp when served with sweet meals. With that in mind, here are many varieties of dessert wines, as well as delectable food combinations, that may enhance the flavor and overall experience of your dessert.
Even though there are a plethora of wines that may be enjoyed with dessert, the ones that have been selected here are excellent examples of their genre. In order to avoid any unpleasant aftertaste when mixing wine with sweet dessert, it’s better to pick a wine that’s sweeter than the dessert itself. As you may recall from our enthralling tutorial on acidity in wine, sugar increases acidity, which is why dry wines taste harsh and sharp when drank with sweet foods. With that in mind, here are many different types of dessert wines, as well as delicious food combinations, that may enhance the flavor and overall pleasure of your meal.
While there are a plethora of wines that may be enjoyed with dessert, those that are featured below are the best examples of the genre. For the best results when mixing wine with sweet dessert, use a wine that is sweeter than the dessert in order to avoid a harsh aftertaste. As you may recall from our fascinating tutorial on acidity in wine, sugar increases acidity, which is why dry wines taste harsh and sharp when taken with sweet foods. With that in mind, here are numerous different types of dessert wines, as well as delicious food combinations, that may enhance the flavor and overall experience.
Known for its honeyed aromas of apricot, peach, butterscotch, and caramel, this cherished (and frequently expensive)sweet wine from France’s Sauternais area inBordeaux is much sought after. Sauternesis one of the “noble rot wines,” which include TokajiAszu wine from Hungary and SpätleseRieslings from Germany. It is prepared from grapes that have been damaged by the botrytis cinereafungus. (This fungus, which sounds disgusting, increases the sweetness of grapes while also imparting a honeyed flavor and aromatic quality.) Served with fresh and dried fruit, as well as heavier sweets such as crème brulee, cheesecake, and custards, Sauternes is a fantastic dessert option.
This fortified wine comes from the country of Spain. Sherry is often served as an aperitif before a meal; however, why not try it after a hearty dinner when you’re looking to wind down? Fruit sweets like Pedro Ximénez are great accompaniments to crème brulee, vanilla ice cream, dark chocolate anything, or just enjoyed on their own as an after dinner treat.
This delicious sparkling wine from Germany is available in a variety of sweetness levels. Its inherent acidity helps to cut through the sweetness of the dish, making it a wonderful companion to a cheese course or cheesecake after dinner.
Serve a sweeter Spätlese with citrus-based sweets such as lemon pound cake or lemon cream pie if you have a sweeter Spätlese on hand. Pear tarts and sorbet are also delicious desserts that go together like peanut butter and jelly.
Another rot wine of distinction, the tongue-twisting Gewürztraminer is a sweet, fragrant wine from the Alsace region of France that has a pleasant sweetness to it. With its lovely floral and lychee overtones, this exquisite white wine pairs perfectly with any dessert that has lychee, pear, or peach as one of the major components, such as ice cream.
In addition to being known as Muscat Blanc in its native country of Italy, Moscato is an extremely popular white wine that has built a name for itself owing to the three F’s that best characterize its character: fizzy, fruity, and flowery. This dessert wine is perfect for enjoying on a spring day or a late summer evening. It is also incredibly flexible. You might serve it with poached pears, grilled peaches, fruit tarts, nutty treats such as biscotti, or whatever else you choose.
In addition to being known as Muscat Blanc in its native country of Italy, Moscato is an extremely popular white wine that has built a name for itself owing to the three F’s that best characterize its character: fizzy, fruity, and flowery. This dessert wine is incredibly adaptable, and it is ideal for enjoying on a spring day or a late summer evening. Serve with poached pears, grilled peaches, fruit pies, nutty sweets like as biscotti, or whatever else takes your fancy!
It’s Time for Dessert in a Glass
Following your education on dessert wines, it’s time to put your newfound knowledge to use in a variety of real-world scenarios. Dessert wines, like any other type of wine, are characterized by a wide range of tastes and characteristics. Despite the fact that there are several “rules” associated with wine consumption, the basic line is that you are free to set your own guidelines. Don’t be afraid to experiment with a bottle of dry sparkling Brut or wonderfully crisp rosé to accompany those funfetti cupcakes you just brought out of the oven.
Who knows what will happen?
That’s the beauty of wine: no matter how you enjoy it, it is one of life’s joys that makes everything else a little bit easier to swallow.
Everything You Need To Know About Dessert Wines – And Were Afraid to Ask
Certainly, the world of dessert wines is sweet – but it can also be bewildering at times. We spoke with sommelier Richard Hanauer about this often-overlooked family of wines in order to throw some light on it. Dessert wine may be intimidating, but it may be much more so than ordinary wine. In this article, we ask sommelier Richard Hanauer to give us the dirt on the delectable beverage. RPM Restaurants in Chicago and Washington, D.C. He is also a partner and wine director at Bar Ramone, a Spanish-inspired restaurant in the Windy City that serves a variety of tapas.
- Amex Essentials include: I’m not sure what dessert wine is precisely.
- In addition to dry and off-dry varieties of wine, dessert wines have a sweet flavor to them that customers find appealing.
- There are literally hundreds of different varieties of dessert wines to choose from on this globe!
- Fortified wines are often deeper in color and have a nuttier flavor, and they are packaged in dark bottles.
- Within these two categories of fortified and unfortified, there is a dissolving distinction between the many types that can be found.
- In addition to being known for their wine-aging capabilities (due to the inclusion of grape spirits that allow the wine to age exceptionally well), the regions that make Port, Madeira, and Sherry are also widely known for their high costs.
- Despite the fact that non-fortified wines mature exceptionally well, they are typically offered as new releases.
Dessert wine is extremely concentrated and viscous; it packs a lot of flavor, sweetness, and concentration into a tiny vessel, so you don’t need to drink nearly as much of it as you would with drier wines.
One glass of wine will suffice for the evening.
Yes, albeit not all fortified wines are intended to be served as dessert wines.
When it comes to mixing dessert wine with dessert, what is the number one guideline to follow?
Desserts that are served with highly sweet wines will be overpowered by the desserts that are served with less sweet wines.
Examples: A fruity dessert is ideally paired with a wine that has a fruity character, such as Sauternes.
CAN I serve dessert wines with savory foods in addition to sweet ones?
The meal, on the other hand, will significantly alter the flavor of the wine, making it appear much more dry than it actually is.
Some dessert wines are also excellent companions to spicy foods.
Is it necessary for me to be concerned?
Due to the drying effect of this fungus, the water content of the grape is dramatically reduced, but the sugar content is substantially increased.
It is said that when you harvest a vine in Bordeaux, you create a bottle of wine.
Wine is produced when a vine is harvested at Sauternes, and it is served as a glass of wine.
Prices can range anywhere from $10 to $1,000 and every number in between, so be prepared to deal with the whole spectrum.
The extra benefit is that, once opened, dessert wines remain far longer in your refrigerator than dry wines, allowing you to obtain more wine for your money.
What can I do to make my selection of dessert wines for the holidays stand out from the crowd?
With its excellent value dessert wines, Hungary is now the best-producing country in the world, and the vintners are quite proud of their work.
Spending more than $20 or $30 on a (half) bottle of wine is not necessary.
I would then turn to the Veneto area of Italy, which is famed for its Recioto di Soave wine and for a way of drying grapes known as appassimento, as a next stop.
Pair it with cheesecake covered with compote of fresh fruit (peaches are particularly good).
One of the truly outstanding dessert wines is 20-year tawny port, which offers all of the flavors associated with old port at a more affordable price range. Pair it with chocolate sweets, such as the 14k Chocolate Cake at RPM Steakis, which is a surefire winner!
What Is The Difference Between Fortified Vs Unfortified Wine?
Wine that has been fortified against wine that has not been fortified What exactly is the distinction between them? When all you want to do is enjoy a bottle of your favorite wine, technical jargon might be difficult to understand. Whatever the wine, whether it’s Merlot, Pinot Gris, or Port, why bother with the fortified vs unfortified debate? However, if you’re simply interested in wine drinking, studying the differences between these two varieties of wine may be a waste of your time. However, if you are a genuine wine enthusiast who want to treat this beverage with the respect it deserves, you must be aware of the type of wine you consume, its qualities, and the procedures that resulted in the flavor you appreciate.
We must start with the fundamentals in order to understand the differences, so let’s look at what unfortified wine is.
What is Unfortified Wine?
The fermentation of grapes results in the production of wine. There is a lot more to it than that, and I won’t go into it here, but the end product is unfortified wine. This is wine in the manner in which most of us are familiar with it. Drink having an average alcohol concentration between 11 and 16 percent, while some may contain less or more alcohol. Unfortified wine refers to any wine made using the usual winemaking process (whether traditional or industrialized) and obtained from nothing more than fermented grape juice as the starting point.
What is Fortified Wine?
In order to understand what fortified wine is, I must first clarify that, according to the government, fortified wine is any wine with an alcoholic content greater than 16 percent, but not greater than 24 percent. The assumption is that any wine that contains more alcohol than this threshold is fortified, however this is simply not true, as we will see below. An unfortified wine may contain a higher percentage of alcohol than a fortified wine. This is often the case with sweet dessert wines, which are produced by combining sugar and yeast with a dry wine to produce a sweet finish.
Nonetheless, in the actual sense of the phrase, fortified wine is a wine that has been produced by the addition of a spirit to the wine, whether it is dry or sweet in nature.
Historically, wine was carried by sea, and the less than perfect conditions frequently resulted in the beverage being spoilt.
Fortified wines such as Port, Madeira, Sherry, Vermouth, and Marsala are some of the most recognized varieties of fortified wines, but there are many more that are less well-known, such as Tuscany’s Vin Santo.
Fortified Vs Unfortified Wine
You should now understand the distinction between fortified and unfortified wines, although things are not as straightforward as they appear. At first sight, it may appear that there is a significant difference between the two groups, but this is not the case. It is common to find unfortified wines with a greater percentage of alcohol than fortified wines, which is owing to the high sugar content of grape juice prior to fermentation. Furthermore, contrary to common assumption, fortified wines do not leave a lingering flavor of alcohol.
Rather than tasting the brandy, you will most likely taste the rich caramel, nutty, or toffee undertones that are present in the wine.
Consequently, when it comes down to picking a preference between the two types, it’s nearly hard to make a decision.
A Beginner’s Guide To Dessert Wine
Non-fortification procedures include the addition of sugar to the wine or the naturally occurring concentration of sugars in the grapes before they are picked, among other possibilities. Unfortified wines are available in a variety of varieties, the most prevalent and widely consumed of which being ice wines and botrytis cinerea wine. Ice Wine is a type of wine that is served chilled. History of Ice Wine – Ice wine (or Eiswein, as it is known in Germany and Austria) is typically produced in wine-producing regions that are subjected to predictable cold periods.
- When a cold spell hits, the grapes begin to shrivel and freeze.
- Ice wine is particularly popular in Canada and Germany, however it is also produced in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and New Zealand, among other places.
- Ice wine is a very sweet, extremely fruity, but also rather acidic wine that is perfect for pairing.
- Ice wine is also one of the few wines that may be served with a chocolate dessert, which is rare in the wine world.
- Botrytis cinerea wine (also known as “Noble Rot” wine) was named after a fungus that kills grapes under particular climatic circumstances, which may surprise some people.
Dessert wine – Wikipedia
Methods other than fortification include the addition of sugar to the wine as well as the natural concentration of sugars in the grapes prior to harvest. Ice wines and botrytis cinerea wine are the most prevalent and popular forms of unfortified wines, however there are many more. Ice Wine is a type of wine made from ice and served chilled. Origins of Ice Wine – Ice wine (or Eiswein, as it is called in Germany and Austria) is typically produced in wine-producing regions that suffer predictable cold periods during the winter.
When a cold spell hits, the grapes begin to shrivel up and die.
However, ice wine is also produced in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and New Zealand and is particularly popular in Canada and Germany.
Ice wine is a very sweet, extremely fruity, but also rather acidic wine that goes well with many dishes.
Ice wine is also one of the few wines that may be served with a chocolate treat, making it a unique pairing option. The wine made from Botrytis cinere Botrytis cinerea wine (also known as “Noble Rot” wine) gets its name from a fungus that infects grapes under particular climatic conditions.
Methods of production
Château d’Yquem 1999, a noble rot wine from the Loire Valley Dessert wine producers are interested in producing a wine that contains high quantities of both sugar and alcohol. Because all winemaking results in the production of alcohol through the fermentation of carbohydrates, they are often traded off. However, there are a variety of methods for increasing the relative sugar levels in the finished wine:
- Grow grapes such that they naturally contain enough sugar for both sweetness and alcohol
- If necessary, add sugar in one of the following ways:
- Sugar or honey (Chaptalization) is added before fermentation
- Unfermented must (Süssreserve) is added after fermentation.
In order to prevent the sugar from fermenting completely, add alcohol (usually brandy) before the sugar has completely fermented (fortificationor’mutage’). To concentrate the sugar, it is necessary to eliminate water:
- In warm areas, raisin wine may be produced by drying the grapes in the open air. In colder locations, you may produce ice wine by freezing off a portion of the water. When growing grapes in moist temperate areas, a fungal infection called Botrytis cinerea is used to desiccate the grapes, which causes noble rot.
A late harvest Semillon from the state of Washington. In the lack of alternative methods, producers of dessert wines are forced to create their own sugar in the vineyard. Some grape varietals, such as Muscat, Ortega, and Huxelrebe, yield significantly more sugar than others due to their genetic makeup. Final sugar levels are greatly influenced by environmental factors; thevigneroncan assist by leaving the grapes on the vine until they are fully ripe, as well as by green picking and trimming to expose the young grapes to the light.
While the vigneron has little control over the sun, a sunny year helps to keep sugar levels under control.
However, most of the Muscats from antiquity, including the famousConstantiaof South Africa, were very certainly created in this manner.
Honey was used to sweeten wine in ancient Rome, and it was also used to boost the ultimate strength of the finished product. Today, sugar is typically added to wines that are flabby and immature in order to increase the alcohol content rather than for sweetness, although a certain amount of chaptalization is authorized in the wines of certain nations. German wines must state whether they are ‘natural’ or not; chaptalization is prohibited from the highest levels of German wines in any event.
It is a German winemaking method in which unfermented must (grape juice) is added to the wine after it has finished fermenting. This boosts the sweetness of the finished wine while also diluting the alcohol a little—in Germany, the final wine must have more than 15 percent Süssreserve by volume, which is the maximum allowed. Süssreserve allows winemakers to complete the fermentation process without having to be concerned about halting the fermentation process before all of the sugar has been used.
Because sulphites are required to prevent fermentation, this approach helps to minimize the amount of sulphites utilized. Süssreserve is also employed by other producers of German-style wines, most notably in New Zealand’s wine industry.
To accompany dessert, sweet Montilla-Morilessherry, notably Pedro Ximénez and vins doux naturels are the most often consumed fortified wines in the world. Because it is made from raisin wine, the Pedro Ximenezdessert wine is unlike any other sweet wine from Andalucia. It is fortified and matured in a solera system, like other sweet wines from the region. Alternatively, some sweet sherries (which are mix wines) like asBristol Cream can be consumed as dessert wine. Arnaud de Villeneuve, a professor at the University of Montpellier in France, is credited for perfecting the manufacture of natural sweet wines in the 13th century.
Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise, Muscat de Rivesaltes, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de Lunel, and Muscat de Mirevaland are all named after vineyards in France: Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise, Muscat de Rivesaltes, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de Lunel, and Muscat de Mirevaland.
Regardless of the grape, fermentation can be halted using up to 10% of 95 percent grape spirit, depending on the amount used.
SweetMontilla-Morilessherry, notably Pedro Ximénez, and vins doux naturels are the most popular fortified wines served with dessert. Unlike other sweet wines from Andalucia, the Pedro Ximenezdessert wine is a raisin wine that is fortified and matured in a solera system, which makes it one of the most distinctive dessert wines in the world. Alternatively, some sweet sherries (which are mix wines) such asBristol Creamcan be consumed as dessert wine. Arnaud de Villeneuve, a professor at the University of Montpellier in the 13th century, was the first to develop the manufacture of sweet natural wines.
Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise, Muscat de Rivesaltes, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de Lunel, and Muscat de Mirevaland are all named after vineyards in France: Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise, Muscat de Rivesaltes, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de Lunel, Muscat de Mirevaland, Muscat de Mirevaland.
With up to 10 percent of 95 percent grape spirit, fermentation can be halted regardless of the fruit.
Most wine rules demand that the grapes for ice wine be gathered when the temperature is less than 7 degrees Celsius (19 degrees Fahrenheit). During such temperatures, some water in the grapes freezes, but the sugars and other solids in the grape juice remain dissolved in the remainder of the liquid. If the grapes are pressed while still frozen, a very concentrated must can be produced, which requires a particular yeast strain and an extended fermentation period. The resultant wines are quite sweet, yet their acidity helps to keep them balanced.
The most well-known ice wines are German Eiswein and Canadian Icewine, although ice wines are also produced in smaller numbers in the United States, Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Italy, Australia, France, and New Zealand.
Noble rot wine
Wines such as TokajiAsz of Tokaj-Hegyaljain Hungary, Château d’Yquemof Sauternes, and Seewinkelof Austria are prepared from grapes that have been mouldy with Botrytis cinerea, which sucks the water out of the fruit while giving flavors of honey and apricot to the future wine. Noble rot is caused by a fungus that requires precise environmental conditions to thrive; if the environment is excessively moist, the same fungus may create destructivegrey rot. Vignerons make every effort to increase the quantity of noble rot produced while avoiding the loss of the entire crop to grey rot.
Because of the time it takes for noble rot to develop, these wines are typically picked late.
The fact that noble rot was a factor in Hungarian vineyard demarcation some 50 years before a messenger was allegedly mugged on his way to Schloss Johannisberg in Germany and that asz inventory predates it by approximately 200 years indicates that Hungary’s Tokaj was the first region to produce the wine.
Noble rot is also responsible for a variety of other dessert wines, including the German beerenauslese and trockenbeerenauslese (TBA) classifications, the French Monbazillac, the Austrian Beerenauslese, the Austrian Ausbruch, and other TBA-type wines from throughout the globe.
Several of the world’s most renowned dessert wines, includingTokajiAsz of Tokaj-Hegyaljain Hungary, Château d’Yquemof Sauternes, andSeewinkelof Austria, are made from grapes that have been mouldy with Botrytis cinerea, which suckers the water out of the grape while imparting flavors of honey and apricot to the future wine. Noble rot is caused by a fungus that requires precise environmental conditions to thrive; if the environment is excessively moist, the same fungus may cause destructivegrey rot as well.
Noble rot is most commonly seen in settings where there is constant morning mist, which is usually derived from a nearby lake or the ocean.
The earliest noble rot wines were very certainly made by mistake; both the Hungarians and the Germans have similar legends of how the harvest was delayed for whatever reason, but the moldy grapes were vinified anyhow and subsequently discovered to be delectably tasty.
It is possible that Germany independently found the same procedure later.
Numerous additional dessert wines, such as the German Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese (TBA) classifications, the French Monbazillac, Austrian Beerenauslese, Ausbruch, and other TBA-type wines from throughout the world, are attributed to noble rot as well.
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- Amerine and Maynard’s “Wine.” Encyclopedia Britannica is a reputable reference work. Encyclopedia Britannica is a reputable reference work. Shoemaker, Ted (27 April 2019)
- Shoemaker, Ted (6 December 2013). “German Ice Wine Regulations Have Been Tightened.” This is according to Wine Spectator. retrieved on March 20, 2021
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- Jeanne O’Brien Coffey is the author (20 November 2017). Sauternes is the perfect holiday wine for everything from appetizers to desserts, as revealed by Wine Spectator. Forbes
- Dessert wine is defined in the Wiktionary dictionary as follows: