What Type Of Food Did Ancient Romans Eat For Dessert

Ancient Roman Dessert Recipes

It’s possible that ancient Roman dessert dishes were not as popular as fruits and nuts were throughout their historical period. There was no crystallized sugar accessible, and honey was not always available. Two essential components of today’s classics, both of which are rooted in a lengthy heritage of dessert preparation. The Romans were well-known for eating a lot of fruit, whether dried or fresh. It was more of an after-meal than a dessert, because the notion of an after-meal was first introduced at the end of the Republic.

During the kingdom, fruits were consumed at any time of day and were occasionally served as a component of a meal, which included honey.

Others included figs and dates, which were second and third favorites, respectively.

Aside from that, there were some honey buns, fruit tarts, dough rolls, and a few honey cakes to choose from.

Early Roman cuisine was quite similar to that of ancient Greece.

The Republic and Empire

It was under the Republic that the notion of sweets began to take shape and become popular. Usually, they consisted of fruit and shellfish, and they were referred to as ” mensae secundae “. Aside from it, theappetizer had been introduced by the end of that era. Sweet dishes such as those listed above were frequently mixed with nuts. These ancient Roman dessert recipes may appear to be uninteresting, but they were necessary since some ingredients were difficult to come by for the common civilian in those days.

When Roman civilization began to spread outside its confines, significant changes occurred.

They were well-versed in the preparation of puddings, mousse-like custards, sweet cheeses, and fruit- or cheesecakes flavored with honey.

As the country’s population grew, numerous types of foods were introduced and developed as a consequence of the impact of foreign cultures.

  • Savillum, nutcake, patina de piris, libum, gustum de praecoquis, pepones et melones, dulce de praecoquis, aliter de praecoquis, Dulcia domestica, aliter de praecoquis, aliter de praecoquis

During the Roman Empire, citrus fruits such as lemons, cherries, and apricots were not grown until the 1st century AD. Then there were the apples. In the same way that some fruits became popular only after the empire, cookies became popular only after the empire. This occurred during the 3rd century BC.

More Goodies of the Empire

During the Roman Empire, citrus fruits such as lemons, cherries, and apricots were not grown until the first century AD.

Apples followed shortly after. In the same way that some fruits became popular only after the empire, cookies became popular only after the empire. When it comes to the 3rd century BC,

Romans in Britain – Roman Dessert Recipes: Main Page

There was no refined sugar or butter in ancient Rome, which are two components that are arguably the most strongly associated with dessert meals today. This does not imply that dessert items were absent from the ancient Roman kitchen, or that desserts were in any way restricted in their availability. The Roman imagination provided a plethora of options. Cookbooks such as Apicius, a Latin collection of recipes from the 4th or 5th century CE, and theDeipnosophistae of Athenaeus, a Greek dialogue from the 3rd century CE that just so happens to take place at a banquet and occasionally mentions food and drink, are among the sources for Roman dishes today.

Roman Fruit Platter: The Principal Dessert of the Roman Kitchen

Even now, the fruit platter continues to be the most popular dessert in many Italian restaurants. With honeyed wine to accompany it, a gentle sweetness is provided by nuts and fruits, both fresh and dried, which are served after a substantial dinner. It was a meal that could be used in a variety of situations. Apples were the primary dessert fruit in the earlier days, according to historical accounts, but the aristocratic classes of the later empire had a wide variety of exotic imported and out of season fruits to choose from.

Fruit that was extremely sweet, such as figs, grapes, plums, or dates, was always preferred.

Fruit Candies, from Fig Cakes to Apricot Leather

Dried fruit sweets were also popular with the Romans, who had a variety of flavors. The eastern Romans manufactured dessert candies in the same way as fig cakes and apricot leather are prepared today in the eastern Mediterranean by puréeing or beating the fruit and allowing it to dry into a flat sheet, much as they do today.

Ancient Roman Ice Cream (Dulcia Domestica)

It was common practice in upper-class Roman culture to serve frozen sweets millennia before the development of the freezer. The emperor Nero’s court is credited with inventing an ice cream, sorbet, and slush drink that would become popular centuries later. Ice and snow were carried in from the highlands and scented with citrus, fruit and berries by his cooks.

Ancient Roman Dessert Soufflés, PuddingsCheesecake

It was common practice in upper-class Roman culture to have frozen sweets millennia before the development of the freezer. During the reign of the lavish emperor Nero, a predecessor of ice cream, sorbet, and slush drinks was described. Ice and snow were carried in from the mountains and flavoured with citrus, fruit, and berries by his culinary experts.

Pastries, CakesBiscuits of the Roman Kitchen

Pastries, cakes, and biscuits made in Rome have a lot in common with current pastry traditions from both the western and eastern worlds. It was the pastry chefs of the Roman empire that developed lavish Danish pastries, known asspira, as well as simple sponge cakes, known asenkythoileft (left-handed sponge cake). Baklava and doughnuts, like many other foods, have Roman origins.

A Video on How-to Make a Nice Roman Dessert

For years, I fantasized of living in Old Rome, so I began by replicating these ancient meals in my own home kitchen. A lot more to Ancient Roman cuisine than unique meals served by slaves was available to the public. The wealthy enjoyed lavish feasts on a regular basis, while the poor people ate simple meals that were not far from what we eat now. They ate roast pig in spicy sauces, cheese with dates and nuts as a snack, mushroom omelettes, and cheesecake with figs in custard as desserts, and they drank wine with their meals.

If you’re feeling really brave in the kitchen, you may even recreate some of the more exotic dishes that formerly graced the tables of the emperors.

Preparing an Ancient Roman Meal

It is not necessary to prepare and grill a giraffe or a flamingo in order to enjoy a supper inspired by Ancient Rome. Here are several straightforward dishes that are practically authentic in flavor. In my own kitchen, I’ve cooked all of these recipes and can speak for their ease of preparation. We’ll be looking at the following today: Entrees de base

  • The following dishes are available: Ova spongia ex lacte (honey-glazed eggs)
  • Dormouse (marinated chicken drumsticks)
  • Thynnus (tuna)
  • Isiciaomentata (hamburgers)
  • Ova spongia ex lacte (honey-glazed eggs)
  • Ova spongia ex lacte (honey-glazed eggs).

Dishes that accompany the main course

Roman Ingredients and Substitutions

The success of Roman cuisine was highly depended on the use of fish sauce. The flavors of wine, honey, vinegar, oil, and fish sauce are mixed to produce a harmonious balance of sweetness, sourness, and saltiness in the dish.


This is a highly sweet cooking wine that has been reduced by boiling to one-third of its original volume and then combined with honey.

  • Substitute: Marsala wine or a sweet sherry wine might be used. Alternatively, you may just add honey to grape juice.

Read More From Delishably

This is a thick fruit syrup that is similar to a Roman marmalade in consistency.


This is a thick fruit syrup that is similar to a Roman marmalade in texture and appearance.

  • In place of the Worcestershire sauce, you may use nuoc mam or nam plah fish sauce, which can be found in Asian supermarkets
  • Both are good choices. The words “nhi” or “thuong” should be shown prominently on the label of any sauce that is light amber in color. These phrases suggest that the condiment was derived from the initial extraction of liquid from the fermented fish, which occurred during the fermentation process. The grades of fish sauces are analogous to the grades of olive oils in terms of consistency. The first extraction is of the best quality
  • The second extraction is of the second highest quality.


It is possible to use a little amount of Worcestershire sauce or purchase a bottle of fish sauce from an Asian store (either nuoc mam or nam plah). The words “nhi” or “thuong” should be shown prominently on the label of any sauce of this color. Using these terminology, it may be inferred that the condiment was derived from the initial extraction of liquid from fermented fish. Similar to the grades of olive oils, there are many grades of fish sauces available. The first extraction has the greatest quality; the second extraction has the second best quality.

  • If you don’t have any fish sauce, you may use a pinch of salt in a glass of white wine.


Use nutmeg or allspice instead of pepper in any recipes that call for it.

  • In many ancient Roman recipes, allspice, also known as Fructus Pimentae, can be substituted for “pepper” because of its pleasant, clove-like flavor and scent. It’s a little but useful spice that modern cooks use to flavor stews, sauces, and pickled vegetables. It gets its name from the perfume of the spice, which smells like a collection of spices, particularly cinnamon, cloves, ginger, and nutmeg. Allspice is known aspimento in many parts of the world because the Spanish mistaken the fruit for black pepper, which they calledpimienta, when they first saw it. (This is especially perplexing because the Spanish had previously coined the term “pimientos” for peppers.)

In many ancient Roman recipes, allspice, or Fructus Pimentae, can be substituted for pepper because of its pleasant, clove-like fragrance. Cooks use it to flavor stews, sauces, and pickled vegetables. It gets its name from the scent it emits, which smells like a blend of spices—particularly cinnamon, cloves, ginger, and nutmeg—and is used to flavor stews and sauces. Because the Spanish mistaken the fruit for black pepper, which they calledpimienta, allspice is known aspimento in many parts of the world.

Ova Spongia ex Lacte (Eggs With Honey)

How many of you have fond memories of ova spongia ex lacte from your schooldays? Here is the complete recipe from Apicius’ De Re Coquinaria, which can be found here.


  • Three tablespoons of honey a total of four eggs
  • 275 mL of milk 25 g of butter 1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil a generous spoonful of freshly ground black pepper


  1. Combine the eggs, milk, and oil in a large mixing bowl. Heat a frying pan with a small amount of olive oil over medium heat. As soon as it begins to sizzle, add the omelette mixture. Whisk the mixture with a fork until it begins to firm (this will result in a lighter omelette)
  2. Set aside. When the omelette has been sufficiently cooked on one side, flip it over and cook it on the other side. Fold in half and turn out onto a dish to make a square
  3. Warm the honey in a small saucepan and pour it over the omelette. This should be folded over one more before being sliced into thick pieces. Season with freshly ground black pepper before serving

Chef La Cucina Siciliana prepares Dormouse (Marinated Chicken Drumsticks).

Dormouse (Marinated Chicken Drumsticks)

Dormice were formerly considered delicacies in ancient Rome, but today they are considered to be one of the most serious dangers to native British woods. These rodents eat the bark off of trees, ruin fruit harvests, and, incidentally, gnaw through the electrical wire in residential buildings and other structures. Because a dormouse is becoming increasingly difficult to come by these days, I marinade chicken drumsticks overnight and refer to them as dormouse in this recipe (Gliris). However, because it is classified as an invasive menace, no one would object if you fried a couple of them.

Version by Apicius:’Pulverize the meat in a mortar and pestle and season with pepper and other seasonings such as caraway and cumin, bay leaves, dates, honey, vinegar, wine, liquamen, and olive oil before roasting.’


  • Dormice were were considered a delicacy in ancient Rome, but today they are considered one of the most serious threats to native British forest habitat. Among other things, these mice eat the bark off trees and harm fruit orchards, as well as gnaw through the electrical wire in houses. Due to the difficulty in obtaining a dormouse these days, I marinade chicken drumsticks overnight in this recipe and refer to them as “dormouse” (Gliris). As an invasive menace, no one would object if you prepared a few in your own kitchen. Version by Apicius:’Pulverize the meat in a mortar and pestle and season with pepper and other seasonings such as caraway and cumin.’ Add the dates, honey, vinegar, wine, liquamen, and olive oil and roast until done.


  1. The dormouse was formerly considered a delicacy in Ancient Rome, but now it is considered one of the most serious dangers to native British woods. Among other things, these mice eat the bark off trees and harm fruit orchards, as well as gnaw through the electrical wire in homes. Because a dormouse is difficult to come by these days, I marinade chicken drumsticks overnight and refer to them as dormouse in this recipe (Gliris). However, because it is classified as an invasive menace, no one would object if you cooked a couple for yourself. Version by Apicius:’Pulverize the meat in a mortar and pestle and season with pepper and other seasonings such as caraway and cumin.’ Add the dates, honey, vinegar, wine, liquamen, and olive oil, and roast until done.

Thynnus (Tuna)La Cucina Siciliana (Sicilian Cooking)

Thynnus (Tuna)

Patrick Faas’s book, Around the Roman Table: Food and Feasting in Ancient Rome, served as inspiration for this dish. These are the components, as referred to by the ancient Romans: Ius in cordula assa (Piper in cordula), ligustcum (Legumes), cepam (Cepam), aceti modicum (Acetic Acid), and oleum (Oil). What we refer to as the ingredients are as follows: Pepper, lovage, mint, onion, a little vinegar and oil, and you’ve got yourself a sauce for roast tuna.

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  • 2 big tuna steaks and ingredients for the vinaigrette
  • 3 tablespoons strong vinegar
  • s2 teaspoons garum (or vinegar combined with a little anchovy paste)
  • 1 cup extra-virgin olive oil 4 finely sliced shallots
  • s1 teaspoon pepper (Allspice)
  • s1 teaspoon lovage seeds (or celery seeds)
  • s1 bunch fresh mint
  • solives to garnish


  1. Season your tuna fillets with oil, pepper, and salt before grilling them. Grill them on one side over a hot barbeque until they are charred
  2. Turn the chicken breasts over and brush the cooked side with the vinaigrette to finish. Repeat
  3. Don’t overcook the tuna
  4. The flesh should still be pink on the inside. Serve with the remaining vinaigrette on the side. Garnish with a few olives if desired.

The Isicia Omentata (Hamburgers) is a dish from La Cucina Siciliana.

Isicia Omentata (Hamburgers)

  • Minced meat
  • 1 French roll soaked in white wine (you can substitute non-alcoholic cider or water if serving to children)
  • 1/2 teaspoon freshly ground pepper
  • 50ml Liquamen (you can substitute a little white wine with a pinch of salt or orange juice if serving to children)
  • Some pine nuts and green peppercorns (go easy if serving to children)
  • Optional: a little Caroenum


  1. Combine the minced meat and the wet French roll in a large mixing bowl. Prepare the pine nuts and peppercorns by grinding them together and mixing them into the meat. Form little balls with your hands. Put them in a little package of aluminum foil with a splash of Caroenum in it. Keep the package closed
  2. Bake for 10-15 minutes at 350°F.

Globuli (Sweet Fried Curd Cheese)La Cucina Siciliana (Sicilian Cuisine)

Globuli (Sweet Fried Curd Cheese)

Curd cheese is comparable to cream cheese, but it has a lower fat level and a milder flavor, color, and texture. It is also available in a variety of flavors. This delectable sweet delicacy is made with ricotta or bocconcini, depending on the season.


  • 500g (about 1lb) curd cheese
  • 1 cup semolina
  • Honey
  • Extra virgin olive oil


  1. Drain the curd cheese and set it aside. Excess moisture can be squeezed out with a sieve or colander, or it can be hung up in cheesecloth. Combine the flour and semolina to form a loose dough and let aside for a few hours. (While you’re waiting, have a glass of Vino Caroenum)
  2. Form the dumplings with damp hands after mixing the ingredients. Fry the dumplings in olive oil for a few minutes until they are golden brown. Drain the honey and roll it around in it.

Libum (Ancient Roman Cheesecake)

Libum was a sacrifice cake dedicated to the ghosts of the home, but it was also consumed by the Romans! The following recipe is adapted from Cato’s bookDe Agri Cultura, which was written while he was a consul, politician, and soldier in the Roman Empire. I’m confident that he obtained the recipe from his cook.


  • 1/2 cup plain all-purpose flour
  • 1 cup ricotta cheese
  • 1 egg, lightly beaten
  • Bay leaves
  • 1/2 cup clear honey
  • 1/2 cup olive oil


  1. In a large mixing bowl, sift the flour
  2. Beat the cheese until it is soft, then fold it into the flour mixture. Mix in the beaten egg into the flour/cheese mixture until a soft dough is formed. Partially divide the dough into four pieces and roll each piece into a bun. Placing the chicken on an oiled baking sheet with a fresh bay leaf beneath is recommended. Preheat the oven to 375 degrees Fahrenheit/190 degrees Celsius. Bake for 35-40 minutes, or until the crust is golden brown. Warm the honey, pour it over a flat dish, and set the buns on top of it to sit until the honey is completely absorbed

Roman Foods for Kids

Inform the children that they will be eating in the manner of Ancient Roman gladiators and emperors! The following dishes can be served alongside the hamburgers (if you’re feeding this to youngsters, I included replacements in the recipe).

  • Salad of falafel and feta cheese on pita bread
  • Sliced apples with yogurt and honey on top of pita bread

Original Garum Recipe

From Gargilius Martialis’s De medicina et de virtute herbarum (De medicina et de virtute herbarum):

  1. Use fatty fish, such as sardines, and a container with a 26-35 quart capacity that has been well-sealed (pitched). Fill the bottom of the container with a layer of dried aromatic herbs with a strong flavor—such as dill, coriander, fennel, celery, mint, oregano, and others—and spread them out evenly
  2. Then layer on a layer of fish (if small, leave them whole
  3. If large, cut them into pieces)
  4. And finally, add a layer of salt two fingers thick on top of the fish. Continue to stack the ingredients until the container is completely full. Allow it to lie in the sunlight for seven days. Then, over the next 20 days, stir the sauce every day. Following that, it turns into a liquid.

This is why I buy my fish sauce from a supermarket rather than a specialty store. If you decide to follow my directions, I wish you the best of luck! Please keep me informed on how things went. Reconstruction of a Roman cooking facility The St Albans Museum is located in St Albans, England.

A Roman Banquet

When discussing the cuisine of ancient Rome, it is impossible to avoid mentioning a feast at least once. Here’s an example of one of Apicius’ banquet meals for a medium-sized gathering. It reveals a great deal about the scope of Roman commerce, because the ostrich and flamingo came from Africa, the dates from Judea, and the spices came from all throughout the Empire, among other things.


  • Jellyfish and eggs are included. A stuffed udder made of salted sea urchins
  • A stuffed udder made of salted sea urchins
  • A patina of brains that has been cooked in milk and eggs
  • Spicy peppery fish-fat sauce on top of boiling tree fungus
  • Cooked sea urchins in a spicy sauce made of spices, honey, oil, and egg sauce.

Main Courses

  • The fallow deer is cooked in an onion sauce with rue, Jericho dates and raisins as well as oil and honey
  • The dish is served with a side of mashed potatoes. ostrich with a sweet sauce that has been boiled
  • The turtledove was cooked in its own feathers. The roasting of a parrot
  • A stuffed dormice packed with meat and pine nuts is served. Sautéed pork loin with figs and bay leaves, then rubbed with honey and baked in a puff pastry crust Flamingos cooked in dates broth


  • With pastry, make a fricassee of flowers. Pitted dates loaded with nuts and pine kernels, fried in honey
  • Pitted dates stuffed with nuts and pine kernels, fried in honey African sweet-wine cakes served hot with honey

In the Words of a Roman

During the reign of Emperor Nero (27-66), Gaius Petronius served as his personal counselor on questions of luxury and excess. Petronius was officially known as arbiter elegantiae, which means “arbiter of elegance.” He slept during the day and partied throughout the night, which was just appropriate. As an example, here’s a description of a light dinner that he attended while doing his investigation into the ideal life: “After a thorough scrubbing with oil, we changed into our evening attire. We were led into the next room, where we were greeted with three sofas that had been brought up and a table that had been lavishly spread up in front of us.

Egyptian slaves rushed in and splashed icy water over our hands as soon as they saw us.

On a huge tray was a bronze donkey, which was a nice touch.

Dormice were arranged on either side of the table, each coated in honey and wrapped in poppy seeds. Small sausages are cooked nearby on a silver grill that is blistering hot. When it came to wine, we were practically drowning in it.”

Fast Food of Ancient Rome

Thermopoliums, which were similar to small wine bars that sold warmed wines and the ancient version of fast food, were another option for an Ancient Roman to consume. This type of fast food establishment and taverna could be seen in droves, establishments that were easily identifiable to us as the neighborhood convenience store with a liquor license. On the way home, a tradesman, sandal vendor, or cashier might stop at a grocery store to pick up some hot sausage, bread, cheese, dates, and, of course, wine.

What do you think of Ancient Roman food?

Thermopoliums, which were similar to small wine bars that sold warmed wines and the ancient version of fast food, were another option for an Ancient Roman to eat at. This type of fast food establishment and taverna could be seen in droves, and they were readily identifiable to us as the neighborhood convenience store with a liquor license on the premises. On the way home from work, a trader, sandal salesperson, or clerk would stop to pick up some hot sausage, bread, cheese, dates, and, of course, wine.

What Did the Ancient Roman People Eat at Meals?

Government-issued dietary guidelines are now standard practice in the United States, with an ever-increasing number of fruits being recommended for inclusion in the daily diet. During the Roman Republic, the government was less concerned with an ever-expanding waistline or other health concerns than it was about the general welfare of the populace. During the Roman Empire, there were Sumtuariae Leges (sumptuary rules) in place to curb extravagance, including the amount spent on a single meal, which had a direct influence on how much food affluent Romans could consume during their meals.

What Poor Romans Ate

Poor Romans would consume cereal grain at all meals, whether as porridge or bread, regardless of whether or not they were subjected to sumptuary rules. To make the flour for the bread, the women would grind the grain everyday. They rolled the firm kernels between two stones, one of which was concave and the other of which was smaller. A “thrusting mill” was what they named it. Later, they made use of a mortar and pestle on occasion. For porridge that cooks in less time, there was no need to grind the grains.

  • and attributed to Lacus Curtius.
  • 85 Pultem Punicam sic coquito, pultem punicam.
  • This is the result of a recent P.
  • S being used, and the ovum being the only one to be fertilized.
  • 85 Punic porridge may be made using the following recipe: Preparation Instructions: Soak one pound of groats in water until very soft.
  • 86 Graecum triticum est facilissimum.
  • Placing it in aulam indat and pure water of cocatque.
  • 86 The following is the recipe for wheat pap: Using clean wheat, place 1/2 pound of it in a clean dish and thoroughly wash it before removing the husk and cleaning it again.

Pour into a saucepan filled with fresh water and bring to a boil. When you’re finished, carefully pour in the milk until it forms a thick cream. It is claimed that during the late Republic era, the majority of people were purchasing their bread from commercial bakeries.

How We Know About Their Meals

It appears that, like the weather, food is a universal topic of discourse, one that is endlessly intriguing and one that is a continual part of our life. As well as knowledge on Roman art and archaeology, we also have information about Roman cuisine from a range of textual sources. Included in this category are Latin agricultural texts such as the passages from Cato above, a Roman cookbook (Apicius), letters, and satire such as the well-known dinner of Trimalchio, among other things. For example, some of this may lead one to conclude that the Romans lived to eat or that they lived by the slogan “Eat, drink, and be merry, since tomorrow you may die.” While most people couldn’t eat that much, even the wealthiest of Romans would have eaten more simply in comparison.

Breakfast and Lunch Roman Style

Breakfast (jentaculum), which was eaten extremely early in the morning for those who could afford it, would consist of salted bread, milk, or wine, and maybe dried fruit, eggs, or cheese. It was not always consumed, though. It is customary for the Romans to have a short lunch (cibus meridianusorprandium) about noon, which may consist of salted bread or a more substantial meal that included fruit, salad, eggs, meat or fish, vegetables, and cheese.

The Dinner Meal

The supper (cena), which was the main meal of the day, would be followed with a glass of wine, which was normally well-watered before serving. Horace, the Roman poet, ate a lunch consisting of onions, porridge, and pancakes. An regular upper-class meal might consist of meat, vegetables, eggs, and fruit, to name a few ingredients. Comissatio was the final wine course served at the conclusion of the supper. In the same way that the salad course might occur at different points during the meal today, the lettuce and egg courses in ancient Rome could be served initially as an appetizer (gustatioorpromulsisorantecoena) or later in the meal.

They may be smaller or larger depending on the occasion, but they were always a typical element of the meal.

It comprises unusual ingredients such as sea urchins, raw oysters, and mussels, among other things.

Figs, dates, almonds, pears, grapes, cakes, cheese, and honey were among the other desserts available in ancient Rome.

Latin Names of the Meals

The names of meals change throughout time and between different geographical places. Dinner, lunch, and supper have traditionally meant distinct meals to different groups of people in the United States. In ancient Rome, the evening supper meal was referred to as vesperna, which means “evening meal.” Thecena was the name given to the major meal of the day in both the country and the city at one point in time. It was customary for lunch to be eaten about noon, followed by a lighter dinner.

The heavy supper was pushed later and later in the city as time went on, and thevespernawas eliminated as a result. Instead, a small meal, known as a prendium, was established between the jentaculum and the centurion. Thecenawas is often consumed at sunset.

Dinners and Dining Etiquette

In the Roman Republic, most women and the poor ate sitting on chairs, while upper-class males lay on their sides on couches around three of the four sides of a cloth-covered table, according to popular belief (mensa). Thetriclinium is the name given to the three-sided configuration. Banquets may linger for hours, with people eating and watching or listening to musicians, so being able to stretch out and relax without having to put on shoes must have made the experience even better. There would have been no need for diners to coordinate eating utensils in each hand because there were no forks.

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“Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome,” by Lesley Adkins, is available online. Roy A. Adkins, Reprint Edition, Oxford University Press, July 16, 1998. Roy A. Adkins, Reprint Edition, Oxford University Press, July 16, 1998. Marcus Cato’s “On Agriculture” is a classic piece of political philosophy. The University of Chicago is located in Chicago, Illinois. “Everyday life in ancient Rome,” by Frank Richard Cowell, is available online. B.T. Batsford published a hardcover edition in 1962. Winnie D. Lowrance is the author of this work.

  1. 35, No.
  2. Marion Smith, is available online.
  3. 50, No.
  4. 50, No.
  5. 1813, d.
  6. Wentworth Press published Charles 1797-1867 Anthon’s hardcover biography on August 25, 2016.

Ancient Roman Cake/Torta Antica Roma

It is called as Torta Antica Roma in Italy and contains a buttery foundation that is filled with jam, a whipped semi sweet ricotta filling on top that is covered again with the same flaky buttery pastry, and it is cooked till brown. Using a sharp knife, cut the cake into slices and serve with powdered sugar. It’s really good. I sent out a message a few months ago in which I asked readers to suggest an Italian recipe that they would like to see on the site. One of our readers had a question regarding this Torta Antica Roma.

Believe me when I say that this was a challenging cake to locate.

Although, to be completely honest, it reminds me more of a crostata/pie than a cake in terms of texture and appearance.

How to make it

It is possible to make the dough for this cake in three different ways: using the flat beaters on your stand up mixer, in a food processor, or even by hand. Combine the flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt in a large mixing bowl. Mix in the softened butter until the mixture resembles coarse crumbs. Mix in the egg until it is nearly completely incorporated. Transfer the dough to a lightly dusted flat surface and knead it gently to mix the ingredients into a compact dough ball, about 10 minutes.

Then divide the dough in half and stretch it out to an eighth-inch thickness, placing it in the pie pan that has been prepared.

While the foundation is cooling, in a small mixing bowl, cream together the ricotta and powdered sugar until smooth and fluffy.

Refrigerate. Roll the remaining dough into a circle that is little thicker than 1/8 inch in thickness, place it on top of the ricotta, seal the edges, brush with milk, and bake for 20 minutes. Allow the cake to cool completely before dusting with powdered sugar and serving.

What is the best flour to use?

It has 8-9 percent protein, which is ideal for this dish. I used pastry flour for this recipe. The lesser the amount of protein in the crust, the flakier and more delicate the crust will be. To produce your own pastry flour, take 2 tablespoons of all-purpose flour and replace it with 2 tablespoons of cornstarch for every cup of all-purpose flour. To ensure there are no lumps, sift the components together before mixing them together.

What jam can I use

Strawberry jam is used in the original Ancient Roman Cake; but, if you are feeling really ambitious, you may always create your ownHomemade Jam. If not, a decent store-bought product will suffice. Use a variety of jams, such as mixed berries, cherry, or even blueberry, to spice things up.

What is ricotta

Ricotta cheese is formed from leftover whey from previous cheeses; it can be prepared from cow, goat, sheep, or Italian buffalo milk. It is a soft cheese with a mild flavor. It is possible that an acidifier will be used. Ricotta, which literally translates as “recooked,” refers to the process of cooking the whey. It is not possible to classify ricotta as a true cheese because it is not made from curd but rather from whey. The name “ricotta” can refer to both the dried and the fresh kind. Fresh ricotta is placed in the traditional cone-shaped perforated container and let to drain for many hours.

However, it is neither elastic nor firm, and it has a soft and somewhat gritty feel to it.

The majority, if not all, of Italy’s regions produce its own ricotta, although the most popular varieties come from Lazio, Abruzzo, Basilicata, Sicilia, Sardegna, Campania, Puglia, Calabria, Toscana, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lombardia, and Piemonte, among other places.

What is Italian pastry dough

Italian pastry dough is made up of flour, sugar, baking powder, butter (which is normally at room temperature), and an egg, and occasionally an egg yolk, among other ingredients. The addition of the egg makes the dough even flakier than the traditional shortcrust pastry.

How to store it

The remaining cake should be wrapped tightly and stored in the refrigerator; it will keep for up to 3 days in the refrigerator. Alternatively, it may be frozen; simply wrap it tightly in plastic wrap or foil and store it in a freezer-safe bag or container. It will keep for up to three months in the refrigerator. Please try this Ancient Roman Cake if you are seeking for a unique and unusual Roman dessert and let me know what you think in the comments section below. Enjoy!

Ancient Roman Cake

When there is any leftover cake, it should be wrapped tightly and stored in the refrigerator for up to 3 days. For freezing purposes, cover the dish tightly in plastic wrap or aluminum foil and store it in a freezer-safe bag or container.

For up to three months, it will keep well. I hope you will try this Ancient Roman Cake and let me know what you think of it if you are seeking for an unusual Roman treat. Enjoy!


  • 12 cup granulated sugar (100 grams)
  • 1 teaspoon baking powder
  • 1 pinch salt*
  • 3 1/4 cup plus 2 1 4 tablespoons butter (softened) (200 grams)
  • 1 big egg (room temperature)
  • 2 cups pastry flour (260 grams)

*I use salted butter, but if you use unsalted then add ¼ teaspoon of salt.

  • 14-12 cup strawberry jam (80-160 grams)
  • 1 cup ricotta cheese (250 grams)
  • 212 teaspoon powdered sugar (or icing sugar).


  • 12 teaspoons milk (to brush the dough with)
  • 2-3 teaspoons powdered/icing sugar (to sprinkle with)
  • Making the dough for this cake is easy and can be done in three different ways: with your stand up mixer with flat beaters, in a food processor, or by hand.


  • Combine the flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt in a large mixing bowl. add the softened butter and pulse or whisk until the mixture resembles coarse crumbs
  • Mix, pulse, or stir until the egg is nearly completely incorporated. Transfer the dough to a lightly dusted flat surface and knead it gently to make a ball of dough that is compact in shape. Refrigerate the dough for 30 minutes once it has been wrapped in plastic wrap. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit (180C). Prepare an 8-inch pie pan by lightly greasing and flouring it. Partially divide the dough in half* and roll one half into an 8-inch-thick circle
  • Place in the pie pan (don’t worry if it breaks, just press it together to fit in the pan with your fingers)
  • Prick the bottom of the dough with a fork
  • Spread with a layer of jam, thin or thick as you prefer
  • And refrigerate. While the foundation is cooling, in a separate mixing bowl, cream together the ricotta and powdered sugar until light and fluffy
  • Remove the dough from the refrigerator and put the ricotta on top of the jam, then place the dough back in the refrigerator. Roll the remaining dough into a circle that is little thicker than 1/8 inch in thickness, lay on top of the ricotta, and seal the edges with a brush of milk, repeat with the remaining dough. 30-35 minutes, or until golden brown, is a good time to bake. Allow the cake to cool fully before dusting it with powdered sugar before presenting it to guests. Enjoy

*The remaining half refrigerate until ready to use.

In the event that you have any leftover dough, you can either freeze it for later use or shape it into twists or cookies and bake until brown. To produce your own pastry flour, take 2 teaspoons from each cup of all-purpose flour and replace them with 2 tablespoons of cornstarch, sifting the mixture to eliminate any lumps along the way. calorie count 244kcal|carbohydrate count 45g|protein count 7g|fat count 5g|saturated fat count 3g|cholesterol count 16mg|sodium count 35 mg|potassium count 200 mg|fiber count 3g|sugar count 20g|vitamin A 140IU|vitamin C 1mg|calcium count 98mg|iron count 1mg

The Roman Sweet Tooth: Apicius’ Tiropatina (Tiropatinam)

Salvete omnes, everyone! Who among you has a strong need for anything sweet today? If that describes you, then you’ll enjoy this week’s dish very much. Last week, I published an article on ancient Roman sweets in which I compared my own sweet taste to that of Cato the Elder in an attempt to convince myself that my overindulgence in cookies, cake, and chocolate is normal and has been done by our species for millennia. In any case, if I’m going to cite the Roman historical record and the recipes included within it as evidence for my habit, then it appears that I’m in good company.

  1. Nonetheless, if I had to choose, a basic white sponge cake topped with fresh strawberries and unsweetened cream would be my first choice.
  2. Because, every now and again, it’s beneficial to come back to the basics.
  3. In order to counteract these inclinations, recipes such as this one for Apicius’Tiropatina take us back to the very beginning of time, when simple, natural flavors dominated the palate.
  4. In my most recent piece, which was published on Cato’s Globi, I pointed out that ancient Romans enjoyed their confectionery in the same way that you and I do.

As a result of this basic recipe, the most delectable and fluffy custard was made, and it is no surprise that GrocockGrainger (2006) called attention to the fact that current cooks have not modified the milk-to-egg ratio that much while makingcrème caramel and crème brûlée in the modern kitchen.

  • Waesbergios, 1709).
  • Waesbergios, 1709.
  • Marcus Gavius was a Roman general who fought against the Romans.
  • To the point where Crystal King created a whole novel on him, his staff members and Roman cooking in her just published fiction novel “Feast of Sorrow: A Novel of Ancient Rome”.
  • Apicius is mentioned multiple times in the historical record by writers like as Athenaeus and Seneca; he was described as an epicure who delighted in the excesses of life and who set food and eating standards that were practically hard to satisfy.

Apocalypse II – De Re Coquinaria (De Re Coquinaria) – Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1146 However, even though it is thought that Apicius lived during the reign of Tiberius in the 1st Century AD, the writings and recipes (more accurately, general guidelines) that bear his name were not published until the Middle Ages and later.

The recipes contained inDe Re Coquinariaare some of the most scrutinized and tested Roman recipes ever recorded in the historical record; Tiropatinais one of these recipes.

Tiropatina with Pomegranate Seeds is a traditional Italian dish. Ingredients in Apicius’ Tiropatina (Tiropatinam), a sweet treat for the Roman palate

  • To make the cake, you’ll need 20 big eggs, 1 cup honey, 2 litres (1/2 gallon) whole milk, pomegranate seeds, and mint sprigs for decoration (optional).


  • Ramekins, pudding molds, muffin pans, or shallow circular baking dishes
  • A whisk
  • Ingredients

In accordance with the instructions from De Re Coquinaria, we should make tiropatina in the following manner: ” Tiropatinam: accipies lac, aduersus quod patinam estimabis, temperabis lac cum melle quasi ad lactantia, oua quinque ad sextarium mittis, si ad eminam, oua tria. in lacte dissoluis ita ut unum corpus facias, in cumana colas et igni .” Following is an English translation of what we read in this passage: “To make cheese patina, take some milk and put it in a dish large enough to contain it; flavor the milk with honey as if you were making milk pudding.” Alternatively, 3 eggs to a 1/2 pint is an acceptable ratio.

  1. Fill a clay baking dish with the mixture and cook it over low heat until it has set.
  2. After carefully reading the directions from De Re Coquinaria, here is how I produced the Apician recipe forTiropatina, as follows: Step 1.
  3. Cover with plastic wrap and set aside.
  4. Step 3.
  5. Allow the mixture to cool until it reaches a comfortable working temperature.
  6. Step 5: Fold in the cooled milk and honey into the beaten eggs until well combined.
  7. You’ll have enough mixture to create 18 single-serving tiropatinas or two big flans with the rest of the ingredients.

When thetiropatinae are ready to be served, they will fall out effortlessly as a result of this technique.

See also:  What Kind Of Dessert To Serve With Mexican Food

Step 7: In a baking pan, pour the tiropatina mixture into the molds and bake for 1 hour, or until the flan mixture is golden brown on top and does not jiggle when removed from the oven (about 15 minutes).

The enormous flans will need to be baked for around 1.5 hours.

Step 8: Once the flans are done, remove them from the oven and lay them on the stovetop to cool to room temperature while the water and molds are still inside.

Take the cold molds out of the fridge and carefully place them onto the serving dishes or cake-tier that will be used to showcase and serve thetiropatinaeon (see step 9).

The backside (or blunt side) of a butter knife blade should be used to gently work its way around the interior of each mold in steps 10 and 11.

Even after boiling water and lightly sopping several tea towels in it, the flan will not budge.

Do not allow the towels to become too wet; you do not want hot water to drop over the surface of the serving dish.

It is important to make certain that, when you release thetiropatinae from each mold, they fall into the plate that will be used to serve them.

Garnish with mint and pomegranate seeds and serve immediately after step 11.

My expectations were fully exceeded after eating thesetiropatinae(yes, it is a singular word since, let’s face it, you aren’t really going to eat just one.) When you blend the delicate hints of honey with the tart, powerful flavor of pomegranate seeds, something truly beautiful happens in your mouth.

  1. It was airy, fresh, light, and floral in nature.
  2. I could picture me sprinkling a variety of fruits and berries on top of thesetiropatinae in the future.
  3. The idea that Roman cooks, such as our buddy Apicius, figured out how to prepare custard pudding 2,000 years ago makes me a very happy woman.
  4. When you’re working with a limited set of ingredients and don’t have access to cane sugar, caramel, cooking foam, or a blow torch to brûlée the top of a flan, for example, you have a unique chance to find that the fundamental, core flavors of the dish are actually what make it what it is.
  5. Try it out for yourself and see what you think.
  6. Good evening, friends!
  7. Tiropatina with Pomegranate Seeds is a traditional Italian dish.
  8. albeit not always in that order.

Inquiries should be forwarded to the following address: Summary Name of the Recipe Apicius’ Tiropatina, a treat for the Roman sweet tooth (Tiropatinam) Originally published on Preparation time Cook time Total time Average rating4 Published on According to 24Review (s)

Ancient Roman Food: What did the Romans use to eat?

Have you ever been curious in what the ancient Romans consumed? If that’s the case, this article will provide you with some solutions. A short voyage through the food of ages and millennia past will be accompanied by In Rome Cooking.

How do we know what the Romans ate?

There are other, more noxious options. For the Romans, there were three meals a day: a brief breakfast, a small snack for lunch, and a more steady dinner that began between 3 and 5 PM and might continue up to 6-8 hours on special occasions for wealthy households. Because most ancient Roman homes did not have a kitchen, the ancient Romans used to eat their lunch at “thermopolia,” which were essentially fast-food restaurants. These structures were so popular in the first century that there were around 90 of them in the town of Pompeii, which at the time had a population of 15,000 people.

Due to the extensive usage of spices by the ancient Romans, their cuisine was remarkably similar to that of today’s Middle-Eastern and North African regions.

What kind of fruits and vegetables did the ancient Roman used to eat?

At the time of the Romans, the most prevalent vegetables were lettuce, cabbage, and leek. Asparagus, mushrooms, and artichokes were also available to the wealthy, which is why they are now so popular in contemporary Roman cuisine. Broad beans, lentils, and chickpeas were among their favorite legumes, as were other types of beans. When it comes to fruits, the ancient Romans were known to consume mostly apples, pears, plums, chestnuts, figs, and grapes. Citrus fruits, on the other hand, did not arrive until the 4th century AD.

Intriguingly, the ancient Romans used to be huge fans of apricots–for example, they used to cook with them in a traditional stewed pig dish–which were brought to Rome from Armenia.

Did they use to eat bread?

Lettuce, cabbage, and leek were the most popular vegetables in ancient Rome. Asparagus, mushrooms, and artichokes were also available to the wealthy, which is why they are now so popular in current Roman cuisine. Broad beans, lentils, and chickpeas were among the legumes that they favored the most. Speaking about fruits, the ancient Romans were known to consume a variety of fruits such as apples, pears, plums, chestnuts, figs, and grapes in large quantities. It was only in the fourth century AD that citrus fruits made their appearance.

It’s fascinating to learn that the ancient Romans cherished apricots–for example, they used to use them in a commonstewed pork dish–which were brought to Rome from Armenia.

What kind of meat and fish did the ancient Romans eat?

Only the wealthy could afford to consume meat in any meaningful quantities at all. Beef butchery was outlawed until the second century BC because cows were required for agricultural purposes.

Pork was the primary meat consumed by the ancient Romans, which was generally cooked and then roasted. When it comes to fish, they primarily consumed shellfish and oysters. The “garum,” a spicy sauce prepared from fish intestines and fermented in full sunlight, was the most often used condiment.

What did the ancient Romans drink?

It was absolutely typical practice for both poor and wealthy people, and even slaves, to consume wine all day long! Women, on the other hand, were strictly forbidden from doing so. A wide variety of wine quality were available, and the most of them had a strong flavor, which was why they were frequently diluted with water and blended with spices, culinary herbs, or honey. One such drink was the “Posca,” which was a cheap concoction of water and sour wine that was extremely popular among commoners and legionnaires alike.

How about the weird banquet dishes?

Here are just a few examples to give you an idea of what it was like to eat at a Roman banquet: dromedary feet, flamingos, and parrots– all slowly cooked and then roasted with herbs, vinegar, flour, dates, and spices–nightingales cooked with rose petals, saw breasts filled with sea urchins. and so on. Would you be interested in trying any of these dishes? Those interested in learning more about Roman and Italian cuisine and drink should keep an eye on our Facebook page.

What did the ancient Romans eat?

What did the ancient Romans consume was a mystery. (Photo courtesy of Stefano Castellani) A chef is resurrecting recipes from one of the world’s oldest cookbooks in order to uncover the secrets of the origins of Italian cuisine. Outside the city walls, the sun is setting over Rome. The golden light seeps through the umbrella pines and shines down on a straight line of flawless basalt stones that were instrumental in changing the path of human history. This is the Appian Way, the first road built in Rome, and it was here that warriors set forth to conquer distant territories and returned triumphantly more than 2,000 years ago, according to legend.

  • This 4,700-hectare paradise – filled with aqueducts, wildlife reserves, ancient monuments, vineyards, pastures, and homes owned by celebrities such as designer Valentino and actress Gina Lollobrigida — is the second biggest urban park in Europe.
  • Standing on this ancient road, you can sense the circle of life: gently wind bringing the aroma of new grass, crumbling stones carrying stories from the past.
  • The Park of the Aqueducts, which is a part of Appia Antica, is only a few kilometers away from the Colosseum and its throngs of visitors.
  • Enter Paolo Magnanimi, owner of the Hostaria Antica Roma on the Appian Way.
  • The menu on the inside has meals that can’t be found at any other restaurant in the city, or possibly even the entire world, according to the owner.
  • Ancient Roman cuisine may not seem particularly appetizing to most people.
  • You might also be interested in the following: Has Rome declared a state of emergency over the artichoke?

The decoding of the world’s earliest known recipes Nonetheless, Magnanimi stays true to the original, replicating delectable foods that average Romans ate, rather than fancy stuff that was reserved for the ultra-rich and powerful.

It was rare to find meat (mainly pig) or fish in Roman cuisine, and when the empire expanded beginning in the 3rd Century BC, the people of Rome welcomed new flavors — whether it was pepper from India or lemons from Persia.

All of this was savored with a glass of honeyed wine during dinners known as conviviums, which were get-togethers to celebrate life and the seasons.

He smiles as he recalls how, as a young man, he struggled to persuade his father that his reinterpretations of traditional recipes would be popular with consumers.

(Photo courtesy of Stefano Castellani) I started working at the Hostaria when I was 14 years old and took a break to spend my ‘Jack Kerouac’ years in the United States,” he explained.

One of Magnanimi’s sources of inspiration came from a friend who sent him the book Dinner with Lucullo, which had anecdotes and recipes from the days of ancient Rome.

Magnanimi began experimenting with dishes and had his first success with pullum oxizomum, a chicken entrée, in the process.

Some Japanese diners were very enthusiastic about it, and as a result, he was interviewed for television documentaries in Japan.

When pollo oxizimum was acclaimed in The New York Times, it became one of the most popular dishes in the restaurant.

On my first visit to the Hostaria in 2008, on the advice of a culinary friend, I ordered thepatina cotidiana, which is the tomato-free forerunner to lasagne.

The original recipe called for lagana, a flat bread that was topped with a variety of meats, seafood, and cheeses to create the dish.

Patina Cotidiana, a tomato-free forerunner to lasagne that is served at Hostaria Antica Roma, is one of the restaurant’s hallmark dishes.

The recipe is ascribed to Apicius, a wealthy foodie who was reportedly characterized by Pliny the Elder as “the most gluttonous gorger of all spendthrifts.” When it came to re-creating the dishes because the ancient recipes did not specify quantities or specifics for preparation, he enlisted the help of renowned Italian archaeologist Eugenia Salza Prina Ricotti, who worked with him to estimate the measurements of the dishes using ingredients that were appropriate for the time period.

  1. According to Magnanimi, “I couldn’t add tomato in it since tomatoes didn’t arrive in Italy until the 1500s, when Cortes brought them back from the Americas.” Thepatina cotidiana, which translates as “daily dish” in Latin, has become a distinctive dish at several restaurants.
  2. In an interview, Magnanimi described his most recent masterpiece, the isle cassata di Oplontis, which was inspired by a mural discovered in a home near Pompeii.
  3. Using a mortar and pestle, Magnanimi prepares his cheese in the manner of a recipe from Virgil, who lived in the first century AD, he explained.
  4. It is made by grinding together coriander, celery seed, garlic, and pecorino.
  5. Magnanimi offers moretum, a cheese spread that was the inspiration for a Virgil poetry, as well as bread that was considered sacred by the ancient Romans.
  6. To make his libum, Magnanimi moulds it into light, fluffy rolls and stuffs it with ricotta from a sheep farm just a few miles away.
  7. In his spare time, he enjoyed long walks along the nearby Appian Way, where green walkways and bike lanes provided an outside respite for Italians who were subjected to some of Europe’s most stringent lockdown restrictions.
  8. I spent a long morning with a shepherd.
  9. He keeps it interesting “Simone Quilici, the director of the Appia Antica Archaeological Park, shared his thoughts.
  10. That’s when archaeologist and architect Luigi Canina made the decision to plant the umbrella pines that have become synonymous with the Appian Way.

(Photo courtesy of Stefano Castellani) Unfortunately, the park plans were never realized, and by the twentieth century, with unrestrained traffic and the volatility of the World War years, there was a real danger that this important portion of the Appian Way would be lost forever to the world.

After decades of opposition, the land was finally declared as a park in 1988, partly as a result of the efforts of the Sierra Club.

“I couldn’t believe this was happening in my city, a location straight out of a fairy tale where I might image a prince galloping along the route on his horses.” Fanelli enjoys bringing guests to this location.

According to folklore, despite the fact that he became blind, he continued to maintain quality control by going barefoot down the road to check that the stones were set smoothly.

It was essential in the establishment of the Roman Empire.

“Since he arrived in 2017, he has made a significant improvement in the park’s accessibility for both Romans and tourists.

“I consider myself extremely fortunate to live here and to be able to invite visitors to see Rome, La Grande Bellezza, in its truest form,” Magnanimi added.

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